crim1003

  • Created by: Fxck_ambz
  • Created on: 30-04-18 00:54
what is criminology
there is no set agreement on what criminology is. best described as a rendevous subject (rock 1986) a meeting place for those from different disciplines to discuss the crime problems.
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what are commonalities
thinking scientifically and using empirical research as a basis for theorising about various aspects of crime. concerned with causes of crime. realise the importance of CJS - prison, police, prevention strategies etc.
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what is crime
our understanding based on common sense assumptions but criminology challenges the assumptions
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what is crime
understanding based on common sense assumptions but criminology challenges these assumptions
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crime as a social construct
a common sense understanding of crime is that is an act that breaks the law. however, law differs over place and time and is subject to change due to social pressures e.g. cannabis changes in classification or use of drug between UK and Amsterdam,
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what do labellist theorists say about crime as a social construct
" criminality is simply not something that people have and dont have. crime is not something some people do and others dont. its about who can pin the label on whom and underlying socio-political proccess of social relations" (Chambliss 1975)
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crime and history
what is considered criminal changes over time. similarly who is considered criminal is subject to change e.g. Nelson Mandella from prisoner to cult hero and a symbol of peace . both point to nature of crime
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why look at history
1) provides contextual background to our understanding of crime in contemporary era e.g. prison as opposed to death penalty. 2) identifies the changing nature of crime and punishment in society 3) political decisions and social pressures change crime
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key points
"criminality is simply not something that people have or dont have; crime is not something some people do have and others dont. crime is a matter of who can pin the label on whom and underlying the socio-political process of social relations
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policing
policing is a new concept .
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assize of arms 1181
ordered males over 15 to equip themselves to act as protectors of the home. in the event of a robbery.
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nightwatchmen 1285
statute of winchester.introduced night guards to patrol villages. early forms of self-policing . countryside villages/lack access and road systems mean that communities left
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robert peel and the "new" police
early 19th century .home secretrary peel introduced first state paid police work and deliberate use of blue uniform from the military.focus on prevention
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bow street runners
18th century with growing divides in wealth between middle class and working class. private paid detectives funded by victims.
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punishment
1600s-local law enforcement centered on parish/village
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local opinions and law
personalised, ecclesiastical courts maintained , social discipline , "original sin" religious , morality and power of church . punishment in public/focus on humiliation
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witch hunting
search for witches or evidence of witchcraft often involves moral panics. people often scapegoated for anything from a death in the village to failure of crops.
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Witchcraft Act 1735
a crime for a person to accuse someone of being a witch. max imprisonment 1 year
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the bloody code
50 (1688) to 200 (1800) crimes that carry the death penalty. in 50 years 1749-1799 over half of the convicted were reprieved
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transportation
19th century. at same time public hangings 160,000 convicted for trivial offences they were shipped to various countries-American,Africa and Australia never to return again. Huge voyage by ships- poor conditions many convicts died on route.
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prison
forms of prison. 13th century- detention zones. 18th century-bridewells. warehousing people. 1)bridewells 2) mass incarceration prisons for serious offenders
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changes in thinking about crime
1) moving away from harsh punishment 2) crime as a rational and not religious, superstitition and supernatural
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classicism
cesare beccaria 1734-94 famous work on crimes and punishment (1764)
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benthams panopticon
prisons must be effective form to punishment, a prison based around the idea of surveillance and the regulation of conduct. suspicion of being under surveillance enough to ensure compliancy.
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experimental crime prevention
beccaria and bentham main classicisr thinkers. Henry Fielding looked at preventative measures to tackle the "gin craze" and associated disorders.
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crime and social class
18th century - increase in property crime in capability betwwen rich and poor. many crimes linked to survival theft or protecting livelihood social crimes. collective lawbreaking e.g. Luddite machine
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new fears , old issues
youth crime is viewed as a modern issue. a sign of decline in social and moral order "chavs" " neds" "gangs"evidnce shows each generation as more deviance etc. (Pearson 1983) e.g. Teddy Boys (1950s) mods & rockers (1960s) youth subcultures
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what did cohen say 1972
"societies appear to be subject to some moral panics. An episode : person, groups emerge to be more threat to society cues and undergos natures is stylized and stereotypical by mass media. object to panic is novel.
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changing in nature of state power
middle ages- death penalty was essential of state power. the establishment of police, army, prison changed this. prisons, police carry out the essential functions that death penalty used to do.
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death penalty : thinking sociologically
death penalty is social construction whether the death penalty is right and wrong. not appropriate rather it is how its practised. (Sutherland 2016)
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what are the methods
beheading, electrocution, hanging, lethal injection, shooting in the back of the head by firing squad
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abolition in Britain
in 1940s and 50s DP in Britain was rare. Euth Ellis was the last women to be hanged. last people were Allan and Evans in 1969-strangeways prison Evans. Allan in Walton Prison
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public attitudes to the DP
support for death penalty drops below 50% for the first time. british social attitudes report MATCEN Social research found 48% of 3000 people were in favour of the DP. lowest figure since survey began in 1983 when 75% of people were in favour.
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what does Garland say about the death penalty
it used to be cultural universal - only 250 years ago every organised society has DP and used it and applied it
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two essential human rights
1) right to life. 2) right to live free from torture
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peculiar institution 1)
western world has abolished it. in europe death penalty is illegal. Australia, New Zealand, Canada, SOuth Africa
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peculiar institution 2)
peculiar use between states, 32 states use it. some have the law but dont enforce
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peculiar institution 3)
peculiar function of deterence. 66% of DP are overturned or replaced with imprisonment time between sentences usually many years. average is 14 years.
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peculiar institution 4)
peculiar use against black offenders. white victims and black offenders a predictor of death penalty. DP sees it have a useful function of crime and punishment.
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what function does it serve in the USA
1) tough on crime. 2) a demonisation of penal policy for political gain. 3) provides america with added drama and play out of morality. Dp sees the have a useful function of crime and punishment.
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criminological views vs public opions
criminology views DP as racist. fraught with error . little crime control function . barbaric.
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examples of problems with death penalty
1) innocent sentences (Huff 2001) 2) ethnicity to victim (white) and offender (black) precursor to the death sentence (Patermoster & Bame 2008) out of touch with humans.
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reform as anti-democratic
governmental elites- have revoked the death penalty even while it remains popular within the public. state elites have realised that capitali punishment is illegitimate and problematic however governments abolish despite public wishes
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reform in the USA
USA top down state authority does not exist therefore making abolition illegal is difficult to achieve. US culture of the penal populism makes it difficult to be enacted. would need to have majority state abolition .
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sources of information
how do we know about crime??? 1) personal experience 2) media and news 3) tv and film
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what are the crime trends?
mid 1950s marked increase in crime. almost 3/4 increase in recorded crime between 1955 and 1960 . increase in availability of mass consumer goods,
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three sources of data
1) police recorded crime 2) national crime survey 3) local crime survey
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what is the history of statistics
in 1857 home office began to produce national statistics for england and wales. used data from police and courts in local areas. showed what was happening in terms of crime in different areas allowing resources to be depleted to places needed .
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two ways of viewing statistics
1) realist views -official statistics 2) constructivist view as a social construct can only be understand when reference to those who collect them and their methods (cicourel 1968)
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3 types of statistics
1) counts, 2) rates 3) frequency
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official police recorded crime
Crime Survey England and Wales - recording of particular offence . violence against the person, burglary, drug offence etc
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crime victimisation survey BCS-CSEW
45,000 adults in private households. asks about experience and perceptions of crime in the last year. also asks about those crime not reported to the police
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why do people not report crime?
victims views the offence as trivial. victim wont trust the police feel they cant do anything about it. 1) too busy 2) not interested 3) victim scared to report e.g. gang or domestic issues.
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what are the three R's
recognition, reporting, recording
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further hidden crimes
1) dv 2) child abuse 3) drug dealing 4) corporate crimes 5) crime in enclosed institution 6) online fraud and cybercrime 7) organised crime 8) crime by government
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victimisation survey
4th R - respondent issues: only asks one member per household. reasons for not telling. domestic incidents, fear of reprisals, overloading questions, distrust of authorities too time consuming. people forget. only asked about last year.
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perceptions of fear of crime
criminal victimisation surveys also about sn individuals fear of crime however, fear changes according number of variables-age, gender, ethnicity, class etc.
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social acceptability of crime.
some crimes are more socially acceptable than others. tax evasion resources without police involvement
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legislations
RRA 1965. 1976-racial and discrimination and harrassment, C&D act 2006-racially and religiously aggravated offences. health act 2006-ban on smoking in public places. sexual offences act 1967 made legal homosexual acts in private between adults over
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explaining the crime drop
1990 drop in crime in europe and US. due to legislation. 1999 and 2005 several changes place 1) inclusion of summary offences of constables 2) national crime recording standard.
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crimes rises 13% for police recorded offences, 9% reduction when comparing similar crimes
reasons?? improved police recording technique. more people coming forward. new recordings of crime.
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limitations of official statistics
offence rather than offender focused. no victim focus. tells us about CJS process. only contain info about limited set of offences. chnage country rules . summary offences not included.
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cybercrime definitions
cybercrime has enabled an expansion of criminal opportunities by easing barriers to entry into criminal markets at a very low risk activity (Troiano 2011, Lavorgna 2014)
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technology has provided opportunities to crime.
1) an avenue for crime. 2)ways to help prevent crime 3) ways to help reduce offending 4)an avenue for crimes to transform. 5) an avenue for crimes 6) technological advancement in criminoligcal research 7) surveillance development regulation
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theories of cybercrime 1#
1) routine activity theory. cohen and felson 1979. most literature indicates routine activties is a useful explanation of cybercrime and cyber victimisation (Leukfelt and Yar 2014)
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what are commonalities

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thinking scientifically and using empirical research as a basis for theorising about various aspects of crime. concerned with causes of crime. realise the importance of CJS - prison, police, prevention strategies etc.

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what is crime

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what is crime

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crime as a social construct

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