CRIM1003

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Rock 1986
rendevous subject. a meeting place for disciplines.
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Sutherland and Cressey 1960
criminology is the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. it includes within its slope the process of how law making, breaking law and reactions to breaking the law.
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Berger 1963
the first wisdom of sociology is not everything is what they seem
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Cesare Beccaria 1734-94
famous work "On crimes and punishment" (1764)
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Foccault (1977)
Discipline and punishment. Surveillance and discipline in society.
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Beccaria and Bentham
founders of classicism
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Pearson 1983
evidence shows each generation views the next are more deviant
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Cohen 1972
societies subject every now and then to moral panics
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Merton 1938
strain theory
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Amnesty International
number of countries that abolished the death penalty doubled from 48 to 97
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Garland 2012
DP was a cultural universal. 250 years ago. every society had used it.
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Garland 2010 peculiar institution
1) use in western world. illegal in europe, australia, new zealand, canada and south africa. 2) use of DP betweeen states. exists in 32 states. southern states.3) peculiar measure to deter individuals but sentences undergo review 4) use on blacks.
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Huff et al 2001
criminological view vs public opinion. criminologists view DP as racist, fraught with error, little crime control, barbaric.
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Patermoster and Brame 2008
out of touch with human life
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Hopkins Burke 2014
scientific knowledge intense cases should be considered to be superior to public opinion on criminological issues
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Hale et al 2016
decision to record a reported incident is a "negotiated outcome"
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Selin and Wolfgang 1964
devised a weighting index for specific crimes stating this would provide a more accurate overview of the crime problem between cities.
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Sherman et al 2016
cambridge crime harm index instead of treating all crime equally.
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MOJ 2010
By 53rd birthday 1/3 males had a conviction for a standard list offence almsot half had >1 conviction
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Locke and Hobbes & Rosseau
cultural movemenet of intellectuals begin late 19th century. scientific thought opposed superstitition & intolerance questioned authority of old aristocracy.
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Muncie and Mclaughlin 2013
crime only replaced "sin" when a growing legal system goes out of social, economic and cultural changes of the industrial revolution
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Willson and Kernstein 1985
motivations of crime are individual lack of socialisation and the need for immediate gratification
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Murray 1994
underclass. street crime ignores white collar crime
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Murray 1994
people who due to lack of employment stand outside ordinary society excessive state welfare and dependency on social services.
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Willson and Kelling 1982
Disordely people disrespectable and obstreprous or unpredictable people panhandler.
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Herbert Ludwig
critique of broken windows theory
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Clarke 1997
situational crime prevention encompasses reducing crime strategies directed at types of crime meaning crimes are more difficult to commit.
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Young 1986, Young and Mathews 1999, Currie 2007
grew as a response to right realism. related to marxism rather than focus on crimes of the powerful focus on the powerless.
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Akers and Sellers 2008
crime might be socially constructed but its real.
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Young 1986
professional crimes engaged in violence crime are a minor problem compared to domestic violence
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Lea and Young
focus on particular notions of relative deprivation. more important as society becomes more unequal.
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shelley 1981
greater gap between rich and the poor since industrialisation
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lea and young 1984
the organisation of the community in an attempt to pre-empty crime is the at most important.
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christie 1977
restorative justice practices emerging out of the importance of victim perspecties and reinserting victimisation to the criminal justice system.
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cesare lombroso
a biological trait found in an individual "atavism" 1) primitive behaviour 2) linked with darwin 3) physical deficits. 4) savage 5) biologically inferior 6) mentally and physically warped. criminal man.
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rafter & gibson
the criminal woman. percentage of women who were criminal is less than men
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Lombroso 1844
female offender has a "virile cranium" an overabundance of body hair
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Weis 1976
characteristics like a man rather than a woman
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C.F Simpson 2000
Lombroso believes female criminality due to altered thinking
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Harrington and Nee 2005
the females involved in crime are dominated by male characteristics
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Enrico ferri (1856) Garofalo (1880)
people are biologically inferior. they cant be rehabilitated for emphasised importance or additional factors: social and environmental.
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Langstrom et al 2015
A 37 year old nationwide study having a father convicted of a sexual offence increased likelihoood being convicted compared with men without a sexually aggressive father.
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Shriver
hysteria about crimes implications to Langstroms study nature v nurture debate.
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Bowlby 1969
freud's idea 44 juvenule thieves.(1946)
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valier 1998
id-pleasure principle. ego-reality principle. superego-morality principle.
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sutherland
differential association 1) attitudes are learned 2) through interactions with others. highly influential
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Bandura 1977
emerged in 1970s. behaviourism and cognitive psychology. bobo doll experiment. groups of infants watched a film of adults attacking a bobo doll social learning takes place via observation and media role models.
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Ekblom 2005
changing designs of products e.g. cars can reduce crime manually
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Ramsay 1991
increasing natural surveillance can decrease burgulary
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Cohen and Felson 1979
linked with rational choice theory but focuses on the three main components in the commission of crime.
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Mayhew et al 1976
crime of opportunity
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cohen & felson 1979
activity thesis a way of thinking theory and action. highlights the problem of punitive responses to crime. the crime triangle.
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groff, weisburd, morris 2009
victimisation cannot occur without a motivated offender but the model emphasises that element
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Goodard 1919
intelligence a cause feeble mindedness low intelligence is a result of poverty and other social factors.
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Yochelson & Janerou
thinking patterns
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Piaget
reasoning and moral development - 4 main stages.
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Kohlberg
moral reasoning- 3 levels, 6 stages, not a theory but some support betweeen immature moral development to delinquent conduct.
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Eysenck's biosocial theory
1) extraversion 2) extroversion 3) neuroticism.
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Gottfredson & Hirschi (1990)
sociological, biological, psychological, economic. unable to provide explanations of criminal behaviour. Element of criminality is the absence of the self. low self control.
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Akers and Sellers
left realists critical criminologists who recognise the reality of crime
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Matthews 2014
left realism was a political aimed at privided a left social democratic response to demonstrate liberal conservative consensus
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Gramsci
capital accumulation sustains capitalism. produces a population of people not required by production.
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Willson 1996
consequences of high unemployment are more devastating than those of high neighbourhood poverty
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Young 1999
deprivation is dismay to the relative well being of those who below on the social heirachy and unfairly advantaged they make too less a living if it is not as good as ones own
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Sutherland 1940
white collar crime is a crime committed by a person of high status on the act of his occupation
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reiman and leighton 2012
CJS favours upper class white collar criminals less likely to be prosecute or face the same sentence as lower class.
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Gray 2015
white collar crime is serious yet it is addressed leniently.
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Kramer 2005
political and economic processes
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Green and Ward 2005
State crime is illegal for deviant activities perpertated by the state agencies
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Whyte 2003
Private military services are enjoying a period of sustained growth
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Mullins and Rothe 2008
international state crime in DRC. globalisation and financial market. linked with resource extraction gold, diamonds, car emissions scandal
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Lynch et al, Mckie 2018, Kramer 2012
Global warming
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pearce and tombs 2009
toxic capitalism. corporate crime & chemical industry
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stretesky et al 2013
treadmill of production
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Mckie et al
upper class led by punishment environmental regulaton some which are insignificant penalties include fines for violations
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Barak, Flavin & Leighton 2001
economistic focused on the role of the economic system rather than gender, race etc.
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Messerschmidt 1986
fails to address patriarchy and links with feminist perspectives
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Barak, Flavin, Leighton 2001
what about intersectionality and a combination of all factors.
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raewyn connell
masculinities not the same as men. in relation to women and other men
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messerschmidt
studies of crime in masculinities & crime
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collier 1998
hooligan. iconic figure is a something else. a new breed of man
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heidensohn & silverston 2012
second wave feminist developed crique respect not deviance on mens crime 1) distortion-depicted in terms of stereotypes 2) marginilised- theories only about males
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Daly and Chesney Lind 1988
three pillars 1) generalisabilty 2) gender ratio 3) intellectual sexism
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heidensohn
double deviance women treated more harshly as offending not only an offence by law but goes against feminity.
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carlen 1998
prison used less for seriousness of crime more if crime contradicts understanding of female role society i.e. if not a mother, if not in stable relationship
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walklate 1998
**** victims on trial have to prove respectability to be credible
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carol smart 1989
found judge making sexist, victim blaming remarks on **** cases.
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freda adler 1975
increased independence causes them to commit crimes linked with men. the laddette, the mean girl, the female gangster.
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Lombroso 1876
many of the characteristics found in savages and in the coloured races are also found in delinquents.
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solomos 1988
thatcher-swampies by alien cultures law and order response.
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fryer 1984
race hate "a crime police will not solve fewer than 2/10 allegations followed up by the police.
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phillips and bowling
Vagrancy Act 1824 suspicion. 1981-operation swamp. scarman report- racial disadvantage. a fact of british life. pace 1984- a reasonable suspicion of wrongdoing.
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Parmer 2011
S.44 Terrorism Act 2000- sharp increase in the use of power esp after 7/7 2005 esp in Muslims
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Holdaway
Black police relationships as new social movements.
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Bowling et al 2004
cultural competence.
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Cheliotis and Liebling 2006
Black and Asian prisoners treated unfairly compared to whites. 42% of blacks agreed, 41% asian, 30% chinese, 9% white agreed.
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clancy et al 2001
victims and witness descriptions only available for 40% of incidents
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fleetwood 2011
the sentence of drug importation offences along similar lines to violent offences based on drugs weight blogs a number of minority ethnic male and female. drug mates now the prisons of england and wales.
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geoffrey pearson
hooligan a history of respectable fears.
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wayne et al 2008
the media
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chitsabesan et al 2006
19% of depression, 11% anxiety, 11% PTSD, 5% psychotic symptoms
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cripps 2010
90% of boys, 75% girls excluded from school
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emile durkheim
division of labour 1893- adaptations of societies to industrialisation social order based on shared values moral basis for solidarity
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robert merton 1910-2003
american dream the most dominant goal is to acquire wealth as this leads to prestige and status
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Mills 1939-
social structure and anomie. the appetites of individual are not natural they originate in specific cultures.
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Burgess, Shaw, Mckay
Social Disorginisation Theory. Crime is a social and not individual problem
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Carringdon et al and Ladal 2016. Stretesky et al
increase in violent crime. homicide sexual assault
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Sykes and Matza 1957
1957 definitions of individuals/ groups as "criminal"
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Matza 1966
growing out of crime acting out delinquent roles. not a permanent way of life. drifting in and out
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Scully and Marolla 1985
Interview data slowed as history of drug and alcohol abuse is used as a sample of rapists to deny
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Spraitz et al 2014
found leaders of catholic church condemed the media for vilifying convicted protests and the victims of child sex abuse cases
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Becker
crime conflict between dominant and subservient cultures.
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Curasi 2015,Olafson et al 2013
students condemed poor teaching practices and lack of care for students guilty of misconduct.
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Cohen 1955
Strain theory . Introduced subcultures to study of deliqunecy. Merton interest in why lower class seemed to be non-utilitarian, malicious, negativistic.
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sutherland
"deliquency" in the form of vandalism, violence seen as solution subcultures react to dominant culture based on competition and achievement subculture create a sense of community
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katz 1988
criminal acts are risk taken in the real world and so its not just place they are accomplished in a playful spirit
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sutherland, quinney 1970. jeffrey, chambliss 1984
it determines how laws are organised and resources are distributed
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young 1988
radical criminal conflict ideology bases perspectives on crimes and laws in the belief that capitalist society precipitate
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Lynch 2018
ownership,property, capital.
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Akers and Seller 2008
left realists are radical criminologists who have recognised the reality of crime have softened crime.
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Chahratori & Phillips
made some general conclusion. victims indicate for some offences- robbery, fraud,forgery, homicide blacks are more often involved in suspects that might be expect from representation in the general public.
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Clancy et al
victim only available for 40% of incidents
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fleetwood 2011
drug importation offences brings ethnic minority male and females to prison
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Keith fowler
previous childrens commision BCS is congregrous of people in public areas as this i s bad.
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Nifer 2008
statistics suggest no link between young people and crime
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National Census 2001
71% of children in custody have been in care of social services compared to 3% of the general population
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YJB 2007a
1 in 4 boys suffer violence at home and 1 in 2 have been sexually abused
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ONS 2005
31% have mental health compared with 10% general population
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YJB 2003
15% have SEN
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Crime Survey England & wales 2008
the public felt young people committed up to half of all crime. in reality only 12%
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Hansal
630 children recalled to custody following a breach of their license conditions in 2009-2010
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Little 2015
it took 13 years for children in prison to achieve some rights as others under childrens act 1989
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Pollak 1950
women are treated leniently in the CJS in that women captivate males in the CJS to give them lenient treatment. women account for 15% of arrests but only 5% of prison population
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Heidensohn
Double deviance female offenders treated worse as they are on trial for crime they commit and their feminity.
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Ferrell 1995
collective behaviour organised around style and symbollic meaning
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Hayward 2012
i.e. construction of the chav . the new underclass. how does it link with policing. i.e broken windows theory and situational crime prevention
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Stanley 1972
news media created public outrage about mods and rockers subcultures it aroused public concern. it began to polarise groups may have lead to delinquency
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Matza 1960
delinquency to drift
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Cloward & Ohlin 1960
delinquency and opportunity
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Burgess, Shaw and Mackay
Social disorganisational theory
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Brisman 2014
cultural criminology. studies do not always get focus on subcultureds they use a fear of methodological approach
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Glasner 2010
culture of fear are we afraid of the wrong things?
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Newburn 2013, Reiner 1994
policing in great britain has always been a matter of image as substance
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Barron 2013
its lyrical tendency to be micro-focused. it can and does allude to suncultures issues and themes that link to its counterparts that most consistently crime is concerned with everyday it is about life as it is experienced by artists themselves
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Dedman 2015
agency over discrimination impressions ownership over language such as ***** is this a way to claim agency over terminology that has been used to condemn ethnic minorities
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Cahill's 2011 words
womans sexuality used as weapon against personhood
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Brisman & South 2012
constructions of consumerism preventing us from addressing environmentally harmful behaviours
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Mckie 2018
media used a tool by the powerful to undermine harmful criminal behaviours
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Kidd-Lewitt 1995
real crime impacts the view in the same way
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Jewkes 2004
news worthiness
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Reiner 2007
two approaches to understand why representations come to be what they are.
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Hall 1978
violence plays a role in the choice of negative consequence
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Jewkes 2004
new values threshold. 1) predictability 2) simplification 3) individualism 4) risk 5) sex 6) celebrity 7) proximity 8) violence 9) graphic imagery
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Pat 2001
agenda setting proposed the ability of news media influencing the salience of topics on public agenda
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Schlesinger & Tumbler 1992
viewing of Tv associated with development of higher levels of fear of crime
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Cohen 1971
moral panics and folk devils
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Freeman et al
examined how racial identity and different types of media frames affected viewers perceptions of suspects of criminal acts and racial groups to which the suspect belongs.
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Christie 1986
offending is big/bad & successfully elicit victim status
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Surrette 2012
the media is the best percieved for crime
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Wilkins
links with labelling theory and deviancy amplification
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Bushman, Gollwitzer & Cruz 2015
violent video games as criminal
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Krahe 2011
desentisation to violence media resulting in the likelihood and acceptance of more aggressive behaviours. 20th & 21st century. 20th small link violent video games and crime
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Melmuth & Chheck 1981
is there a relationship between criminal behaviour and exposure to sexually explicit media
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Rodenhizer & Edwards 2017
43 studies between sexual media and criminal activity exposure to SEM and SVM is related to Dv and SV myths and more accepting to DV and SV exposure to SEM and SVM is positive to actual DV and Sv Victims
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Tuttle 2017
media forming how the news outlets to immigration and crime
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mythen and walklate 2006
identify the way in which state communicates risks to citizens at the current time has implications for harnessing or allaying about level of risk.
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sweet 2017,
assesses how immigration has before been a matter of security in france. france has become securitized following paris attacks and over 25 years and argue migration has shifted from threat to societal and cultural security to a more traditional
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shaw 2012
examined 8 british newpapers following 7/7 terror attacks to determined extent of stereotypical muslims employed and implications intercultural communications and terrorism prevention
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Humphrey 2014
argued migration has before framed more as a security problem. 2010 Australian election where campaign migration was concerned to security.
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Lee & Thien 2014
examined media consumption as racial perceptions. increased risk of hate crime against racial groups based on singapore survey where multiracialism is a fundamentally political pillar.
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Silva et al
stereotypical targets of hate crime online looking at twitter.
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chan, ghose, seemans 2015
some evidence of a spillover from hate crime in the real world
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awan et al 2016
examined nature of online and offline anti-muslim hate crime. terrorist attacks in france and tunisia in 2015 and in South East London where Lee Rigby was murdered in 2013. offline incidents mosque vandalism ,hijab pulled off,racist graffiti
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Whittaker and Kowalski 2015
examined cyberbullying amongst college students through cyberbullying occur with a fear of social media and perceptions of cyberbullying as a frustration of features .
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lynn and williams 2016
used to protwct a political, economic, social status qou guided by the most powerful in society
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Lynch et al
Treadmill of production & ecological destruction. environmental damage occurs due to exploiting natural resources and goods to produce annd ensure goods. TOP theory applied to old
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Stretesky et al. Lynch 2001, 2004
environmental injustice contentions set out. concerning race & class bias in the law and criminal justice process
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Lynch and Mickelowski
Marxist criminologists
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Stretesky & Logan 1998
siting of polluting of facilities. Blacks were more likely to be found in the superfund sites than whites. Environmental Injustice
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Kramer 2012-2013
State corporate crime any action violating international law and public law when these actions are committed on behalf of or in the nature of the state.
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Ruggiero & South 2013
oil rich countries and TNCs and MNCS able to profit from oil exploitation
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Mckie 2018, White 2015
hegemony & ecological destruction. we live in society where elite maintain a political economic system
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foster 2010
current mode of production and consumption rely on harmful practices
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Mckie 2018
cultural cues to protect an ideology accepting the earth is used as a tool for human consumption
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Hall 2004
victimological theory understanding green crime. anthropoentric - human victim. biocentric- human and non-human species. ecocentric ecosystem victims
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Spencer & Fitzgerald 2013
2010 BP oil spill victims of this corporate social responsibility. from BP was to emphasised that they had taken every BP to minimise to be type of victimisation the company was open to friendly principles.
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Brisman and South 2014, Mckie
environmental harms are socially constrcuted. applied to criminological lens
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Gossling, Peelers 2007. Wellsmith 2010
Green criminology to tourism. Tourism industry has implications for environmental harm. cheap air travel or exploitation of wildlife such as poaching of bird population (Bird Project 2017) Trophy Hunting generate source of income
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Logan
everything happens somewhere which means an action is embedded in palce and may be affected by placement
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Stark 1987
criminal behaviour appears peristent in certain neighbourhood
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Shaw, Mackay 1992. Burgess 1925
one cannot understand social life without unneccessary arrangements of social actors in particular times, place, social factors located.
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Walter 1972, Damer 1974
slums dreadful dangerous places where criminality flourishes
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Boggs 1965
environment opportunities for crime vary from neighbourhood to neighbourhood
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Newman 1972
space theory holds that certain features of physival settings such as indicators of territories and surveillance opportunities reduce crime. Newman proposed environmental strategied describes an uses features to defend.
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Crowe 2000
propoer design and use of the environment lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime and improvement in the quality of life
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jacobs 1961
surveillance means people see what others are doing this deters people
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Atlas 2008
access constitutes the use of physical or symbolic barriers to a channel, attraction the movement of people
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Newman 1972
territorial reinforcement denotes ownership
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Cohen & Felson 1979
well maintained property with clearly defined purposes send cues would be responding that a level of guardian
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Kenny 2004
risk theory based on the view that more aspects are framed by awareness of dangers confronting mankind at the industrial, global, local level and the need to detect strategies to confront dangers
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Pain 2002
Links with fear of crime if people think they are at risk of crime a risk management can be employed
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stern and weiner 2006
as a new risk becomes public and political
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Innes and Fielding 2002
signal crimes refer to an incident that is influential in terms of causing a person to percieve to be at risk
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Innes 2004
community policing across part of a form of reassurance to the public based on public safety and perception of police
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Shogan and Frydll 2004
hotspot policing a tactic of placing cops on the dots.
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Braga et al 2012
Campbell Collaboration reviewed hotspot police linked with reducing crime
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Ariel et al 2016
strong evidence suggested taking a geographical approach to crime increases effectiveness of policing
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Weisburd et al 2006, Bowers et al 2011
crime is usually not displaced to areas in the vicinity of the targeted hotspots as a result of hotspot policing
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Clarke and Weisburd 1994
diffusion of benefits of social control mechanisms to surrounding areas.
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Ariel 2014
radiation of the treatment effect
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Weisburd et al 2006
not only around corner from hotspots
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Telep et al 2014
larger geographic areas
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College of policing
police act as guardians to reduce opportunity for crime. Hospot Policing worked but for crmes including drug offences, violent crime & offender
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Raco 2003
urban regeneration programmes in the UK over 20 years have focused on attracting investors that are middle class
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Cozens 2002
environmental urban development can be incorporated into crime prevention
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Kennedy et al 2011
risk terrain modelling (RTM) estimates of locators, places considered criminogenic are schools, bars, bus stops etc.
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Roche 2006
high profile events criminogenic protective e.g. olympic games, fifa world cup.
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Boyle and Haggerty 2009
national and civil planners.they are political,economic and cultural events like the olympic games and world cup
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coaffee et al 2011
socio-spatial dynamics of London 2012 olympics . counter-terrorism
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weisburd et al 2011
backfire effect. if people concentrate on a certain area then criminals will change location
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croft et al 2015
does it reduce crime?
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sorg et al 2015
deterrence type of policing existed for starters
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kodell 2011
urban areas
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troiano 2011, lavorgna 2014
cyberspace enabled an expansion of criminal opportunities by easing barriers to entry into criminal markets at a low risk activity.
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cohen and felson 1979
routine activity theory. most literature on cyber crime indicates activties is useful explanation for cyber crime and cyber victimisation
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felson and clarke 1998
the concept of social opportunity structures combine opportunity theory with social network theory
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mckie 2018
in terms of the sale of carbon credits, illegal and scam websites are displayed in the same way as legal organisations with purpose of generating profit from an investment
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cambridge analytica
50 million facebook profile data without permission to build a system that could target US voted with political adverts based on their profile
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SANNI
key figures in the leave campagin may have violated spending rules and attempted to destroy evidence. The £625,000 donation vote leave made to a pro-brexit youth campagin group who spent the money was not a genuine donation,
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KIGERL 2013
cross-country studies have shown digital piracy is more prevalent in wealthier nations overall and should be of bigger concern than the less wealthy nations where piracy is high but not as great of a problem
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National crime agency 2018
organised crime can be defined as serious crime planned on coordinatedby people working together on a regular basis
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LAVORGNA 2015
characteristics of organised criminals 1) business like groups: market trading systems like a normal business. associated with trafficking of industries such as animal products and pharmaceutical drugs. 2) mafia groups trafficking activities
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LAVORGNA 2015
involved in organised crime groups but it is a new criminal that has loose ties also use internet to sell illegal pharamaceuticals
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DI Giorgio 2011
2 types of medicines sold online 1) lifestyle drugs- enhance apperance and are voluntary. drugs for erectile dysfunctional, obesity or male pattern baldness 2) opioid anagesses . substances such as stimulants, antidepressants
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Ghodse 2010
substances sold that may be misused by rug addicts
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Gentilomo et al 2006
anti-hiv drugs
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nurse 2011
an organised criminal group will deal with anything that will make a profit and there are profits to be made from the trade in a rare and endangered wildlife.
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lewis 2002
the use of computer network tools to shut down criminal national infrastructures to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population
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strohmeier 2016
cyber aviation controld hacked into airplane flight plans
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sykiotus 2007
introduced cyber trafficking to the use of internet for recruiting victims advertising sexual services and attracting clients
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latonero 2012
use of new technologies trafficking minors for sexual exploitation in the US has suggested rise of mobile technologies fundamnetally trafficking landscape.
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krone 2004
internet is an intercontinental networking allowing the spread of illegal *********** material
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rhodes 2017
ease of access to *********** created a further market and demand for the material
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marshall 2000
mixed evidence of this term of online activity leads to offline activity
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kingston , fedoroff , firestone , curry, bradford 2008
evidence that frequency of viewing child abuse was linked to reoffending.
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langevin and curnoe 2004
17% of sex offender sample claimed using **** for self stimulation either immediately or during the sexual crimes
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nasi et al 2015
threats of violence, slander, sexual harrassment and racism
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nasi et al 2015
most common characteristics of victims. male gender, young age, immigrant background
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lianos & mcgrath 2017
low self control and high levels of strain related cyberbullying perpetration some of this consistent with analysis of offline bullying behaviour there is interaction between strain and inability to gain personality positivity with low self control
249 of 252
boes & leukfeld 2017
personal level security from cyber threats i.e. computer prevent data theft etc.
250 of 252
jones 2007
virtual neighbourhood watch: public carrying out their own community policing
251 of 252
manning 2016
criminal law less adaptable since the courts must interpret statutes more strictly extending reach of existing laws
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Card 2

Front

Sutherland and Cressey 1960

Back

criminology is the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. it includes within its slope the process of how law making, breaking law and reactions to breaking the law.

Card 3

Front

Berger 1963

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Cesare Beccaria 1734-94

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Foccault (1977)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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