crim exam

when was the crime drop?
the late 1990s
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why was it shocking that there was a crime drop?
All of the conditions for crime to rise still existed but crime dropped
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4 explanations for the crime drop.
Demographics, state of economy, incarceration rates, police man power.
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Why does neighbourhood watch target the working class?
It's mainly middle class people
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What is the Kansas city experiment and when was it?
1972 took away patrol cars in some areas and crime rates didn't change
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What are policing hotspots?
intense intervention in high crime rate areas
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What is the downside to policing hotspots?
It just displaces crime to other areas
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What is broken windows theory?
We need to deal with low level crime because it undermines the community
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What percentage of adult offenders reoffend?
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What percent of adults that have been sentenced to custody reoffend?
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Name two ways of reducing opportunity of crime
smartphone locking and making cars harder to steal e.g. immobilisers
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What is fire brigade policing?
Only coming when called
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When were PCSOs introduced?
The 2000s
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What is the 1980s NYC policing experiment?
Economic troubles in NYC including lots of crack. Police strategy number 5: reclaiming the public spaces of New York. NYPD increased by 20%, increased foot patrols, increased stop and search
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What % of stop and search was on ethnic minorities during the NYC policing experiment?
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What does Stephen Levitt's argue about the drop in crime
The decline actually started prior to the police strategy change and there was a decline in multiple other cities
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What was the 1931 convention on the limitation of manufacture of narcotic drugs?
Working out the quantity of drugs needed for hospitals etc
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What did Ainslinger say about marijuana?
It is the assassination of the youth
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Which group of people were most affected by the war on drugs?
Ethnic minorities
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What fraction of people incarcerated in the US are on drug charges?
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What are the 4 alternatives to prohibition of drugs?
Medicalisation, legalisation, decriminalisation, harm reduction
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When was the single convention and what was it?
1961- it represented the shift away from drug regulations to a more prohibitive approach
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What is the problem with the statement that narcotic drugs have no place in society?
There is no scientific definition of narcotic drugs
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Who said that research illustrates that drug restrictions are not based on scientific principle of harm e.g. alcohol
Nutt et al
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What did the misuse of drugs act trigger?
Intensive multidisciplinary efforts in the UK to remove banned substances and protect communities
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What did Hugh and Stevens say in 2010?
Evidence shows that tough drug policy doesn't have much impact on levels of drug use
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What percent of arrestees in the UK use drugs?
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What are the three things that make an offence?
Offender, circumstance and victim
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What are the features of dangerousness?
It doesn't refer to the act but the perpetrator, usually sex acts (especially on children) 'a state of being of individuals which predisposes them to engage in harmful acts
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Who states that 'dangerous should not be ascribed to people, only situations, actions or activities'
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What percent of sexual offences against children are from people that know the child?
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What does Lombroso say about prisoners?
They all have similar features,large foreheads, gap in the teeth, curly hair, primal characteristics and less evolved
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How do you train impulsive people?
cognitive work
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What are some traits of offenders?
treating people as objects, unhealthy/unrealistic attachments, jealousy, unfounded hatred of others, social isolation,dysfunctional family relationships, feels the world is against them
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What is the community protection model?
commitment and management of perceived high-risk offenders e.g tagging and curfews
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What is the public health approach?
emphasis on public awareness and education to protect communities and prevent crime. Govern risky conditions rather than risky people. CCTV, situational crime prevention, target hardening, neighbourhood watch
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What is the precautionary principle?
Trying to stop dangerous situations- uncertainty doesn't mean innocence potentially preventing crime before t happens
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What is radicalisation?
A process through which groups or individuals grow in commitment to engage in conflict, adopting more radical or extremist ideas
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What are the 4 reoccuring themes of extremists?
resilient individual, identity, dialogue and action, connected or resilient communities
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What is risk factor theory?
Identifies various childhood risk factors associated with later criminality
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What are 6 childhood risk factors?
Antisocial behaviour, dishonesty, aggressiveness; hyperactive, risk-taking, poor concentration; low intelligence and poor school attainment; family criminality; family poverty, large family size, poor housing; poor upbringing, neglect
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What is the biggest criticism of risk factor theory?
correlation vs causation
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What do Sampson and Laub argue?
crime declines with age for active offenders
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What are 3 turning points away from crime?
Military, marriage, steady jobs
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What is the support of terrorism associated with?
rejection of a cohesive, integrated, multifaith and of parliamentary democracy
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In 2005 the government propose to allow police to detain suspects in terrorism cases for how long?
90 days
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What are TPIMs?
Terrorism prevention and invertigation measures
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What is the terrorism and security act andwhen was it?
2015- police power to temporarily seize passports at the border, created temporary exclusion order, enhanced caution of electronic communications daa by service providers
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Name three problems with targeting security risks
Scale of risk is hard to ascertain, only some people with radical beliefs actually turn to terrorists, how big is the population at risk of radicalisation? Muslim communities are 'suspect' population
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What happened in 2016 to increase the amount of hate crimes?
The EU referendum
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How many hate crimes were recorded by the police in England and Wales between july and and september 2016
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What are the two reasons hate crime victims are targeted?
They are vulnerable and also part of a particular group
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What are the 5 layers of harm?
Physical violence, brutality, emotional damage, psychological scars and escalation of social tensenessf
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What are the 5 monitored motivations of a hate crime?
Disability, race, religion, sexual orientation, transgender status
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What is action against hate?
Published in the wake of brexit, refers to the importance of protecting the 'shared values that underpin the British way of life'
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What are the key themes that emerged from the action against hate study?
A failure to dismantle the barriers to reporting, a failure to prioritise meaningful engagement with diverse communities, a failure to provide meaningful criminal justice interventions for victims
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What did the Leicester hate crime project report?
Fewer than one in four survey respondents reported their hate crime
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What percent of hate crime victims were satisfied with the response they received?
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How did the CJS enhance the penalty on hate crimes?
Rather than just sentencing the attack, the motive also counts
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What counts as a hate crime?
verbal abuse, intimidation, threats, harassment, assault and bullying
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What is the main criticism of crime survey?
It collects data for people aged 16 and above
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What are some practical issues about hate crimes?
It is hard to prove it was motivated by hate
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When was the high point in crime news research?
The 70s and 80s
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Where does news power reside?
With the journalist
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What are the universal news values?
Immediacy, dramatization, personification, simplification,titillation, conventionalism, structured access and novelty
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What does 'authoritarian population' mean?
Thatcherism harnessed public fears to populise neo-liberal solutions to economic and political problems including law and order policies
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What is trial by media?
Individuals and institutions are judged by the media court of public opinion
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What does 'living in a mediated age' mean?
We have 24-hour news online, daily newspapers, film, tv
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What are critical approaches?
Draw on marxist approaches controlling the people, generally supportive or punitive CJS, influences prejudice and discrimination
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What are Jewkes news/structures that shape the nature and content of crime news
threshold (importance), sex, children, predictability, celebrity, conservative ideology, simplification, proximity, individualism, violence/conflict, risk, visual spectacle
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Who is the target of policing the crisis?
Black muggers
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Where did the phrase 'alternative facts' come from?
Donald Trump refusing to admit lies
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What are bubbles?
Speaking with people who share our outlook
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What is an echo chamber?
We find ourselves reinforced by other people's beliefs
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Who is David Nutt?
Drug researcher who said drug policy should be based on formal assessment of harm rather than prejudice
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What is the definition of policy?
A set of ideas or a plan of what to do in particular situations that has been agreed to officially by as group of people, a business organisation, a government, or political party.
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Name some influences on policy
Lobbying, expert advice, ideology, government plans, external factors, funding, media and public opinion, policy transfer
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Name an example of a policy change to benefit a political party
The conservatives are often against homosexuality but David Cameron legalised homosexual marriage to look more inclusive
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Name an example of policy change due to disruption of the status quo
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What is an example of moral panics shifting policy?
Tony Blair's ASBOs after the James Bulger case
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What are some examples of populist policy making?
Disregard for evidence and expert opinion. Opinions expressed in media as evidence of what the public want. Demonization and othering of certain groups within society.
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What is political ideology?
A system of ideas and ideals especially one which form the basis of economic or political theory or policy
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What is the post-world war 2 consensus?
Government accepted a commitment to maintain full employment of Keynesian techniques of economic management. Active role in trade unions. Welfare state
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What was the post-world war consensus on crime?
Acknowledged structural causes of crime, reliance on expert advice to guide policy, welfare state used to address social problems, penal system as extension of social policy
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What is neoliberalism?
Political and economic practices that propose that human wellbeing can best be advanced by liberating individual and entrepreneurs' freedoms and skills within an institutional framework characterised by strong property rights, free market and trade
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What is economic liberalism?
'rolling back of the state' lowering taxes and less welfare
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What are the consequences of neoliberalism?
Concentrates wealth in hands of a small elite, falling incomes of lower classes, insecure employment, zero-hour contracts, social immobility, welfare to workfare
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What are some examples of neoliberal criminal justice?
No sympathy for the criminal, criminalisation of social problems, prioritisation of incapacitation and risk minimisation, militarisation of policing, penalisation beyond the CJS, popular punitive political discourse
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What did Western and Pitt say in 2010?
America's prisons and jails have produced a new social group of outcasts
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What did Michelle Alexander say in 2010?
War on drugs is the new Jim Crow
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What percent of people in prison left school by 16?
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How much more likely are children in care to be sanctioned for an offence than regular children?
5 times more likely
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Who said that police presence in a normal home is an attack upon freedom but with children in institutions have a different respect?
Shaw 2016
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Why do children from care enter the CJS so early?
Focus on deeds not needs, risk in system- police called to residential care system for allegations of mistreatment
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What is a critique of anti-social behaviour prevention measures?
Impacts homeless and poor children, doesn't tackle root problem
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What is the neoliberal consensus on law and order?
Rational choice, individual responsibility, tough on crime and criminal groups
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What is the rolling back of the state?
relocation of responsibility from the state to the market and individuals
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What is contracting out?
private companies contracted to provide a range of public services by central and local government and NHS
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When did contracting out start to impact the CJS?
the 1990s
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What are the benefits of contracting out?
drive down costs to the taxpayer, opens up opportunity for innovation and new ideas, state doesn't have to pay upfront to build new facilities
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What is situational crime prevention?
measures and techniques to reduce opportunities of crime
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How does situational crime prevention work?
Increasing the effort involved in crime via target hardening, increasing risk in committing crime, reduce rewards from crime by removing tragets
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What is partnership working?
An arrangement between partners e.g. organisations who are otherwise independent but agree to work for a common goal
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What is Etzitoni's argument about the three legs of society?
State, markets and civil society. Need to rebuild third leg e.g. family, marriage, community
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What are parenting orders?
Introduced in crime and disorder act 1998, normally issued with an ASBO, parenting support
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How many at risk families did labour reach in 2009?
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What are some concerns about parenting orders?
Criminalisation of 'inadequate' parents, only 'vulnerable' parents seen as in need, inappropriate use in low risk families e.g. lack of support and follow ups, folding together families with troubles and troubled families
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What was prohibition established and under what act?
1907 probation offenders act
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Who saw probation as soft and lenient?
The conservatives and new labour
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What did the offender rehabilitation act do and when was it?
2014- extended post release licenses to all
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What year was the probation trusts stopped?
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How much money per pound of criminal justice expenditure was spend on the probation trust?
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How did the government present their rehabilitation revolution?
As not solely based on free market economics
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What does partial privatisation led to?
Mass exodus of probation officers leaving a high deficit in staff
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What does partial privatisation led to?
Mass exodus of probation officers leaving a high deficit in staff
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


why was it shocking that there was a crime drop?


All of the conditions for crime to rise still existed but crime dropped

Card 3


4 explanations for the crime drop.


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why does neighbourhood watch target the working class?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the Kansas city experiment and when was it?


Preview of the front of card 5
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