CPLD Key Words

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Adolescence
A period of time over which children's bodies develop into sexually mature adult bodies
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Development
The skills and knowledge that children gain
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Growth
The process by which cells subdivide
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Neural Growth
When neuron cells increase in size
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Spurt
A short period of intense growth
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Perceptual Skills
The ability to judge objects in relation to their shape, size and/or motion
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Gestation
The period of time between conception and birth
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Refelxes
Automatic movements that do not require conscious decision
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Indiscriminate Attachments
When babies and children do not seem to have formed special relationships with other people
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Multiple Attachments
When babies and children have many specific attachments to other people
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Object Permanence
Recognition that when objects are out of sight, they have not disappeared
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Specific Attachments
When babies and children have formed special bonds with other people
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Mouthing
Exploring items by putting them in the mouth
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Cooperative Play
When children are playing with eachother
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Onlooker Play
When young children are watching other children play andare copying their actions from a distance
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Parallel Play
When young children play next to eachother using similar actions and materials. They are aware of eachother but are not playing with eachother
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Theory of Mind
Children recognising their own conscious mind and understanding that other people will have different thoughts to them
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Behaviourist
The belief that development is shaped by the environment
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NNnativist
The belief that development is predetermined
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Predisposition
An increased likelihood of showing skill, trait or developing a condition as a result of genetic inheritance
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Variables
Factors that may be involved in development
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Conditioning
Learning to act in a certain way because past experiences have taught us to do, or not to do, something
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Encode
The process by which information gained by the brain is stored
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Retrieve
The process by which memories can be activated
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Operant Conditioning
A theory that suggests that the environment 'operates' on and thus influences a child's learning through the use of reinforcers (Skinner)
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Reinforcers
Positive or negative experiences used to strengthen children's behavioural responses
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Schema
A repeated action, way of doing something or way of thinking/reasoning that can be specific or generalised
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Scaffolding
A term used to describe a style of working with children in which the adult helps the child to acquire information (Bruner)
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Phonemes
The smallest units of sound in a language that help to distinguish one word from another. In the English language, for example, 'p' and 'b' are seperate phonemes because they distinguish words such as 'pit' and 'bit'
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Semantics
Languages are composed of words, or units or meaning. When we learn a language we also have to learn what these units are and how they can be changed
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Syntax
The rules for using words and how their place in a sentence can change their meaning
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Trait
A set of characteristics
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Separation Anxiety
A set of behaviours and actions that occur when a child is distressed as a result of the person or people they are attached to being absent
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Atypical Development
Refers to children whose patterns and rates of normative development are unusual and are significantly different from those expected within their age range
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Global Delay
The term used to describe when a child's rates of progression across all areas of development is significantly lower than that associated with normative development for their age range
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Specific Delay
The term used to describe when a child's rates of progression across specific areas of development is significantly lower than that associated with normative development for their age range
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Infant Mortality
The rate of death in the first year of life
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Sibling Rivalry
The conflict that occurs between siblings
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Pre-Conceptual Care
How healthy the parents are before a baby's conception
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Phonics
The individual sounds within words (e.g. 'ph', 'or', 'aw' etc.)
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Holophrases
The use of one word to express a whole phrase or concept
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Model
The person whose behaviour is being initated/learned from
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Modelling
The process by which learning takes place
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Learning Difficulty
A difficulty in acquiring knowledge and skills to the normal level expected of those of the same age, especially because of mental disability or cognitive disorder
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Card 2

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The skills and knowledge that children gain

Back

Development

Card 3

Front

The process by which cells subdivide

Back

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Card 4

Front

When neuron cells increase in size

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A short period of intense growth

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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