Costal erosion

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  • Created by: Natalie
  • Created on: 24-03-14 19:05

1. Landslide

  • individual rock fragments fall off a cliff face, due to freeze thaw
  • rapid movement of rock down a side plane
  • movement of individual soil particles when the ground is saturated.
  • saturated soil flows downhill, triggered by heavy rain
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2. Rockfall

  • individual rock fragments fall off a cliff face, due to freeze thaw
  • rapid movement of rock down a side plane
  • saturated soil flows downhill, triggered by heavy rain
  • movement of individual soil particles when the ground is saturated.

3. Carbonation

  • when saltwater enter a rock, it is often evaporated, leaving behind salt crystals. These crystals grow larger and exert stress onto rock- causing it to break apart. Salt is also capable of corroding rock
  • frequent cycle of wetting and drying are common on shore. Rocks rich in clay expand when wet and contracts when dry- causes cracks and breakdown
  • rocks such as limestone which contain calcium carbonate are slowly dissolved. Sea water forms a weak carbonic acid and when it absorbs carbon from air, it forms calcium bicarbonate which dissolve limestones.
  • plant root can prise rocks apart on cliffs where they grow, creating small cracks which thicken and deepen with age. Birds, animal, and marine organisms dig burrows in cliff

4. Biological weathering

  • water percolates into cracks in the rock, when it freezes it expands in volume by 10%- exerting stress and forces cracks to widen. Rocks are broken away and collected at base of cliff (scree). Fragments are picked up by sea and use in further erosion
  • when saltwater enter a rock, it is often evaporated, leaving behind salt crystals. These crystals grow larger and exert stress onto rock- causing it to break apart. Salt is also capable of corroding rock
  • plant root can prise rocks apart on cliffs where they grow, creating small cracks which thicken and deepen with age. Birds, animal, and marine organisms dig burrows in cliff
  • frequent cycle of wetting and drying are common on shore. Rocks rich in clay expand when wet and contracts when dry- causes cracks and breakdown

5. Attrition

  • the sea hurls already eroded material (sand, shingle, boulders) against cliff face. This breaks down the rock on the cliff face
  • sea water contains weak acids which work to slowly dissolve carbonated rocks such as limestone
  • the already eroded materials are eroded down further as the sediment knock together in the sea
  • breaking wave traps air as it hits cliff face. Air is forced into cracks in rock face, creating pressure at this point. As wave retreats, pressure is released. Overtime this weaken the cliff face, and huge chunks of cliff can break off due to force o

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