Cosmological Argument

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What does the Cosmological Argument seek to prove?
The Cosmological Argument seeks to prove the existence of God based on the universe.
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What is the Classical Cosmological Argument?
The Cosmological Argument seeks to prove that the universe and all that is in it has a cause and that cause is God. The Cosmological Argument is used to support the existence of the God of Classical Theism, who has necessary existence.
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What did Aristotle argue?
Aristotle argued that behind every movement there must have been a chain of events that led up to that movement that we see taking place, and there was a 'common source' of all substance.
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What did Aristotle argue? Continued...
Aristotle believed something/someone was responsible for the beginning and that source is an eternal source that exists necessarily immune to change, decay and death.
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Who said there must have been an 'unmoved mover'?
Aristotle. He said there must have been an ‘unmoved mover’ who is the ultimate cause of the universe and nothing would have come into existence, Aristotle calls the unmoved mover the prime mover.
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What is the ‘Prime Mover’?
The ‘Prime Mover’ is the mover that causes the movement of other things; not as an efficient cause but the final cause. The ‘Prime Mover’ is the purpose of the movement not the push. Much like a cat is attracted to a saucer of milk
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Who is the 'Prime Mover'?
Aristotle believed the 'Prime Mover' is God as he is perfect and all things in this universe desire perfection therefore the universe is attracted to God therefore in Aristotle's opinion the 'Prime Mover' is God.
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What did Aristotle argue when concerning God and the Universe?
Aristotle argues that - God did not create the universe. - God did not sustain the universe. - God did not act on the universe. - God had no interest in the universe.
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What did Aristotle say God was?
Aristotle stated that God was 'supremely perfect' and therefore would have no interest in the universe. Instead Aristotle believes God contemplates his perfect existence (bit narcissistic)
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Who related Aristotle's theory to Christianity?
St Thomas Aquinas.
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What did Aquinas develop to prove the existence of God?
The 5 ways- first 3 relate to the existence of God in the Cosmological Argument.
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What was Aquinas' quote relating to to proving the God of Classical Theism from the Cosmological Argument?
'God's effects... are enough to prove that God exists, even if they may not be enough to help us comprehend what He is...'
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What were Aquinas's Three Ways?
Motion or change, Cause and Contingency.
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What was the 'First Way'?
Based on motion. Aquinas states that an on object only moves when an external force is acting on it.
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Did Aquinas say the chain of movements could go back to infinity?
No. Aquinas thought there had to be a Prime Mover that was unmoved. Aquinas argued the Prime Mover was God
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What was the need for an external influence?
Aquinas argued that for something to achieve its potential it had to be acted on by an external force.
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Which example did Aquinas use concerning an external influence?
Fire making wood hot. Fire when applied to wood makes wood achieve its potential and then when wood becomes ash its actuality. Therefore every change is at result of a chain of causes although Aquinas argues that this chain of causes isn't infinite.
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What is the Second Way?
Aquinas observed that nothing can be at result from itself there he rejects infinite series of causes and believed there must have been a first, uncaused, cause. This first cause started the chain of causes and this first cause was God.
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Why did Aquinas reject infinite regress?
Aquinas rejected infinite regress because he stated there had to be an 'uncaused cause' that began the universe. And that this being must not depend on anything else for existence 'that is what we call God'.
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Which later philosopher built on Aquinas's argument?
Gottfried Leibniz, whom developed the argument and included 'a sufficient reason', which gives additional evidence to help Aquinas reject infinite regress.
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What is the Third way?
This is the argument that something must have started the universe and this is based on everything that exists has a cause and as the universe began to exist it must have a cause.
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According to Aquinas' Third Way what should the cause of the universe be?
Aquinas stated that the external cause of the universe and is a 'necessary being' to bring everything into existence and that 'necessary being' was God. Without God nothing else would exist.
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Card 2

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What is the Classical Cosmological Argument?

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The Cosmological Argument seeks to prove that the universe and all that is in it has a cause and that cause is God. The Cosmological Argument is used to support the existence of the God of Classical Theism, who has necessary existence.

Card 3

Front

What did Aristotle argue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Aristotle argue? Continued...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who said there must have been an 'unmoved mover'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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