Cosmological Argument

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What was the name of the book in which Thomas Aquinas put forward the cosmological argument?
Summa Theologica
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What is Aquinas' first way?
Argument from Motion
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What is the first step of the argument from motion?
There can't be infinite regression of things changing other things (e.g dominoes)
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What is the second step of the argument from motion?
Therefore there must be a First Cause/Unmoved Mover
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What is the third step of the argument from motion?
This = God.
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What is Aquinas' second way?
Argument from Causation
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What is the first step of the argument from causation?
Everything in the world has a cause.
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What is the second step of the argument from causation?
Nothing causes itself
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What is the third step of the argument from causation?
Infinite regress → no First Cause, must be impossible
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What is the fourth step of the argument from causation?
Therefore there must be a first Cause which is God.
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What is Aquinas' third way?
Argument from Contingency
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What is the first step of the argument from contingency?
Contigent beings exist
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What is the second step of the argument from contingency?
A necessary being must've brought these things into existence
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What is the third step of the argument from contingency?
This = God
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What did Immanuel Kant think about causality?
Comes from way we perceive surroundings; world order imposed
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What year was the Copleston/Russell radio debate?
1948
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What is the first step of Copleston's argument?
Nothing in world contains reason for own existence; something outside universe must do this
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What is the second step of Copleston's argument?
Explanation for world = external to world.
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What is the third step of Copleston's argument?
Explanation for world = being containing w/i itself reasons for own existence
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What principle did Bertrand Russell neglect, and what he call the universe as part of this?
Leibniz’ principle of sufficient reason, "the universe is just there, and that's all."
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What did Russell believe about the notion of neccesary beings?
Only applicable to statements of definition (e.g "all bachelors are unmarried men")
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Give one way that David Hume challenged the cosmological argument
No need for universe to have a definite beginning
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Which two thinkers originated the Kalam cosmological argument?
al-Kindi + al-Ghazali
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What is the first step of the Kalam argument?
Everything that begins to exist must have a cause to do this
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What is the second step of the Kalam argument?
Universe must have a cause - must’ve been a time when it began to exist
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What is the third step of the Kalam argument?
If this is so, cause = God.
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What is the fourth step of the Kalam argument?
Therefore, God exists.
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Give a criticism of the Kalam argument.
Misunderstands nature of infinity: has to exist in reality, even if not imaginable.
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What is Leibniz's principle of sufficient reason?
Everything must have a reason/cause, even if we don't know what that is.
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Card 2

Front

What is Aquinas' first way?

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Argument from Motion

Card 3

Front

What is the first step of the argument from motion?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is the second step of the argument from motion?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What is the third step of the argument from motion?

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