Core Science Biology - Keeping Healthy

  • Created by: IKM123
  • Created on: 31-03-15 12:50
What does the term 'metabolic rate' mean?
The rate at which the reactions of your body take place, particularly cellular respiration
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What does the term 'malnourished' mean?
The condition when the body does not get a balanced diet
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What does the term 'inherited' mean?
Passed on from parents to their offspring through genes
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What are the 5 main food groups?
Protein, carbohydrates, dairy, sugars and fats and vitamins and minerals.
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What problems can obesity lead to?
Type 2 Diabetes and heart problems
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How can we reduce obesity?
Eating less carbs and doing more exercise.
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Why does eating too much make you put on weight?
The food contains energy, and any excess energy is stored in the body as fat
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What are the two types of cholesterol?
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and High-density lipoproteins (HDLs)
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What are LDLs?
They are BAD cholesterols and high levels of these in the blood can cause disease of the blood and heart vessels.
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What are HDLs?
They are GOOD cholesterols
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What are saturated fats?
They are BAD fats, they increase blood sugar levels
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What are unsaturated fats?
They are GOOD fats, they help to reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the balance between 'good' and 'bad' lipoproteins.
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What does the term 'pathogens' mean?
Microorganism which causes disease
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What is an 'infectious disease'?
A disease which can be passed from one individual to another
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What is meant by a 'microorganism'?
Bacteria, viruses, and other organisms that can only be seen using a microscope
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What is 'bacteria'?
Single celled microorganisms that can reproduce very rapidly. Many bacteria are useful, for example, gut bacteria and decomposing bacteria, but some cause disease.
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What is a 'virus'?
Microorganism which takes over body cells and reproduces rapidly, causing disease
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What do bacteria or viruses produce when they reproduce rapidly?
Toxins which make you feel ill
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Who discovered that washing hands was the best way to remove pathogens?
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What are white blood cells?
A blood cell which is involved in the immune system of the body, engulfing bacteria, making antibodies and antitoxins.
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What is the immune system?
The body system which recognises and destroys foreign cells or proteins such as invading pathogens.
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What 3 things do white blood cells do to defend the body?
1)They ingest pathogens means they digest and destroy them. 2)They produce antibodies to help destroy particular pathogens. 3)They produce antitoxins to counteract the toxins that pathogens produce
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What is an 'antibiotic'?
A drug that destroys bacteria inside the body without damaging human cells
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Who discovered Penicillin?
It was first discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928
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What are antibiotics made to kill?
Bacteria NOT viruses
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What can bacteria be grown on?
Agar jelly
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Why must all equipment be sterilised for investigations?
This ensures that unwanted microorganisms do not infect the culture
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What can uncontaminated cultures be used for?
To investigate the effect of antibiotics and disinfectants on bacteria
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To culture (grow) microorganisms in a lab, you must...
1)Give them a liquid or gel containing nutrients (a culture medium) 2)Provide warmth and oxygen 3)Keep them incubated at 25 degrees C in school labs and 35 degrees C in industry
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To keep the culture pure, you must...
1)Sterilise all equipment (pass metal loops through a flame; boil solutions and agar) 2)Prevent microorganisms from the air getting into the equipment
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What is meant by the term 'culture medium'?
A substance containing the nutrients needed for microorganisms to grow
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What is meant by 'agar'?
The nutrient jelly on which many microorganisms are cultured
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When pathogens mutate mutate, what is formed?
A mutation
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What is an epidemic?
When more cases of an infectious disease are recorded than would normally be expected
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What is a pandemic?
When more cases of a disease are recorded than normal in a number of different countries.
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What is MRSA?
Methicillin-resistant Staphlyococcus aureus. An antibiotic-resistant bacterium.
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What is natural selection?
The process by which evolution takes place. Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support so only those who are most suited to their environment will survive to breed and pass on their characteristics.
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What is a vaccine?
The dead or inactive pathogen material used in a vaccination.
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What is meant by the term 'vaccination'?
Introducing small quantities of dead or inactive pathogens into the body to stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens. This makes the person immune to future infection.
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What is meant by the term 'immunisation'?
Giving a vaccine that allows immunity to develop without exposure to the disease itself.
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What is a disadvantage to overusing antibiotics?
It can lead to development of new strains of bacteria
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What does the term 'malnourished' mean?


The condition when the body does not get a balanced diet

Card 3


What does the term 'inherited' mean?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are the 5 main food groups?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What problems can obesity lead to?


Preview of the front of card 5
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