Coping with Climate Change

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  • Created by: em42
  • Created on: 26-04-15 16:33
1. What does mitigation mean?
It involves reducing the output of GHGs and increasing the size of GHG sinks. It is a longer-term solution.
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2. Give some examples of mitigation strategies.
Setting targets to reduce CO2 emissions. Developing energy-efficient strategies in all economic sectors. Switching to renewable energy sources. 'Capturing' carbon emissions from power stations and storing them. Enhancing the size of carbon sinks.
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3. Why are there strong arguements for mitigation?
It is necessary to avoid irreversible climate change and mitigation is the ultimate long-term solution. To work, it has to take place at all scales: individual, local, national and global.
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4. What does adaptation mean?
Changing our lifestyles and businesses to develop strategies to cope with the increasing dangers from climate change. It is an immediate solution.
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5. Give some examples of adaptation strategies?
Coastal defences/managed retreat of a coastline vulnerable to sea-level rise. Developing a second generation of drought-resistant crops. Enlarging conservation zones or developing wildlife corridors to allow for shifting ecosystems & habitats.
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6. Why are there strong arguements for adaptation (i.e. climate proofing)?
Many scientists argue that the effects of climate change are already happening and even if humans stopped polluting the atmosphere now, climate change would continue. Adaptation and migation go hand in hand and both are needed.
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7. The Kyoto Protocol was agreed in 1997. Why did putting this framework into practice lead to extremely complex and ongoing negotiations?
Many countries delayed signing because they felt cutting emissions would damage their economies. Russia didn't sign until 2005 and Australia (2nd largest per capita polluter) until 2007. The USA produces 25% of the world's global emissions and
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7. The Kyoto Protocol was agreed in 1997. Why did putting this framework into practice lead to extremely complex and ongoing negotiations? [continued]
initially signed but withdrew in 2002 following the election of George Bush.
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8. What systems were introduced because of the protocol?
The 'trading' of carbon credits, the buying of unused emissions from other countries or businesses. New carbon sinks were allowed so that countries can 'offset' emissions. It is argued that both of these systems allow polluters to keep polluting.
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9. Why has the overall reduction of emissions been under 1%?
There has been increasing emissions e.g. from Brazil and Chindia who were not obliged to cut emissions. Discussions at the 2009 Copenhagen Climate Change Conference proved very complex & many issues about mitigation responsibilities stay unresolved.
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10. Why do some TNCs actions wield enormous economic power?
Some TNCs are bigger economically than developing countries and so have great influence.
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11. Why, initially, were big oil and car companies opposed to cutting emissions?
They argued that reducing pollution would cost money, profits and jobs. Now, however, leading TNCs produce annual environmental reports and many are committed to greener growth.
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12. How has General Electric, the World's largest company, committed to greener growth?
They've committed themselves to double their R&D spending on clean technologies, double their revenue from renewables & energy-efficient products & reduce the GHG emissions by 30% by 2012.
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13. Why did they change their attitude?
Pressures from customers & investors & the need for a good public image. There are also big profits in renwables & clean technology. Incentives are available for offsetting schemes & clean development, and governments are taxing CO2 emissions more.
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14. In what ways do national governments play a vital role in developing strategies to reduce emissions?
Promoting energy-efficient technology e.g. green transport. Encouraging energy generation from nuclear (France), renewables (UK)/biofuels (USA) instead of fossil fuels. Promoting carbon storage by sequestration of power-station emissions (Norway) &
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14. In what ways do national governments play a vital role in developing strategies to reduce emissions? [continued]
creating sinks through afforestation. Awarding huge grants for developing carbon-neutral ecotowns. Legislation & fiscal policies e.g. taxing pollution.
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15. What strategies do local governments have to reduce emissions?
They try to reflect the strategies of their national government. London has introduced congestion charging & Leicester is the UK's 1st environmental city. Some emission-reducing schemes available to local authorities are: improving bus services,
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15. What strategies do local governments have to reduce emissions? [continued]
installing LEDs inntraffic lights, local farmers' markets, providing cycle lanes & routes & small-scale renewable electricity generation (e.g. rooftop solar panels).
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16. What is Local Agenda 21?
It encourages local authorities to implement sustainable strategies to improve the environment & reduce carbon emissions. People are encouraged by positive local actions on recycling, green transport etc. to do their bit for climate change.
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17. How do environmental NGOs help to find solutions to climate change?
They operate in advocacy & education roles to bring pressures on governments & individuals to act. They campaign on the causes, impacts & solutions to climate change for a number of environmental & socio-political reasons.
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18. What is the key to getting individuals involved in cutting emissions?
Education is the most important thing. Calculating a person's carbon footprint is a very good personal check on performance. This creates an opportunity to reduce the footprint by changing patterns of consumption& transport use etc.
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19. What ways can an individual try to reduce their carbon footprint?
Walking/cycling/taking the bus/train rather than using the car. Buying locally produced foods but often at higher prices & with limited choice. Switching energy supplies to renewables (costly). Becoming energy efficient in the home (no standby).
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Card 2

Front

2. Give some examples of mitigation strategies.

Back

Setting targets to reduce CO2 emissions. Developing energy-efficient strategies in all economic sectors. Switching to renewable energy sources. 'Capturing' carbon emissions from power stations and storing them. Enhancing the size of carbon sinks.

Card 3

Front

3. Why are there strong arguements for mitigation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

4. What does adaptation mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

5. Give some examples of adaptation strategies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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