Coordination and Control

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  • Created by: SummayaM
  • Created on: 25-02-18 08:12
What are thermoreceptors?
Free nerve endings
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What kind of endings do nociceptors have?
Undifferentiated endings
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Which receptors produce the sensation of pain?
Nociceptors
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What kind of endings do mechanoreceptors have?
Free nerve ending, expanded tip endings, stray endings
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What are modalities of sensation?
Each type of principal sensation that we can feel
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Where do nerves terminate?
At a specific point in the CNS
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How is the type of sensation determined?
By the point in the nervous system to which the fiber leads
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Are there receptors in the stomach wall?
Yes for hunger
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What receptors are present in blood vessels of tetrapods?
Stretch receptors for blood pressure regulation
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How are types of sensory endings are in the skin?
3
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How many senses are receptors in the skin concerned with?
5: cold, touch, pain, heat and pressure
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What receives touch stimulus in skin?
Hair end organs
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What kind of endings do Meissner's corpuscles have?
Encapsulated endings
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Where do Meissner's corpuscles lie?
In the papillae which extend into ridges of the fingertips
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What kind of receptors are Meissner's corpuscles?
Touch receptors
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Describe the shape of Meissner's corpuscles.
Spiral and twisted endings which form a knot
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Which corpuscles are located deep within the body?
Pacinian
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Describe the neuron endings of Pacinian corpuscles
Encapsulated neuron endings
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What receives deep pressure stimulus?
Pacinian corpuscles
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How is detection of ground vibrations done by terrestrial vertebrates?
Achieved by receptors in joints
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How many more pain receptors are there than cold receptors?
27 times
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How many cold receptors are there than heat receptors?
10 times
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What is the structural unit of nervous system?
Neurons
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Which cell makes up half of the nervous system?
Neuroglia
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What is the functional unit of nervous system?
Neurons
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Motor neurons have long or short axons?
Long
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Which branch of sensory neuron runs from receptor site to cell body?
Peripheral branch
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What is another name for cell body?
Dorsal Root Ganglion
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Which branch of sensory neuron runs from ganglion to spinal cord or brain?
Central branch
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What is the direction of impulse in dendrites?
Towards the cell body
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What are Nissl's Granules?
Groups of ribosomes associated with RER and Golgi apparatus in cell body of neuron
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What is the direction of impulse in axons?
Away from cell body
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What is the main nutritional part of the neuron cell?
Cell body
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What is another name for cell body
Soma
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Can cell body regenerate axons and dendrites?
Yes
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What is Electrical Potential?
Measure of capacity to do electrical work
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A neuron at rest has which charge on the outside?
Positive
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What is the electrical potential that exists across a cell membrane called?
Membrane potential
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How many more times is the concentration of sodium outside greater than that inside?
Tenfold higher
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How many more times in the concentration of potassium greater inside than outside?
20 times
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For every 2K+ in, how many sodium ions are pumped out?
3
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Negative inorganic ions are greater inside or outside the cell membrane?
Inside
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Cell membrane of neuron is permeable to which ions?
None except for Potassium a bit
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What is the value of resting membrane potential?
-70mV
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Cranium is a part of which structure?
The skull
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Which organs constitute the CNS?
Brain and Spinal Cord
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How many layers of Meninges are there?
3
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Which structures are protected by meninges?
Brain and Spinal Cord
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The composition of CerebroSpinal Fluid resembles what?
The composition of blood plasma
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Are the brain and spinal cord hollow?
Yes
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The brain can be divided into which parts?
Forebrain, Midbrain, Hind brain
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How many functional parts is forebrain divided into?
Three: The thalamus, the limbic system and the cerebrum
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What function does thalamus perform?
It carries sensory information to limbic system and cerebrum
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The pons is above or below the medulla?
Above
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Midbrain is under or over the hypothalamus?
Under
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Thalamus is over or under the hypothalamus?
Over
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Which structure is a crucial relay center in the brain?
Thalamus
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Where is the limbic system located?
In an arc between the thalamus and cerebrum
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What are the three structures in the limbic system?
Hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus as well as nearby regions of the cerebrum
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What sensations are produced by amygdala?
Pleasure, punishment, sexual arousal, fear, rage
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Which structure is involved in long term memory?
Hippocampus
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Which is the largest part of the brain?
Cerebrum
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How many parts is the cerebrum divided into?
2
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How do cerebral hemispheres communicate with eachother?
Through a large band of axons called corpus callosum
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How many neurons are packed into corpus callosum?
Tens of billions
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Which structure of the brain forms convolutions?
The outer cerebral cortex
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Which brain structure is reduced in humans?
Midbrain
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What does the midbrain contain?
Auditory relay center and center that controls reflex movements of eyes
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What is reticular formation?
A relay center connecting hindbrain with forebrain
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What are the structures in hind brain?
Pons, medulla and cerebellum
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Which functions are controlled by medulla?
Automatic functions such as breathing, swallowing, heart rate and blood pressure
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What does the pons do?
Influence transitions between sleep and wakefulness, and the rate and pattern of breathing
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What maintains body position?
Cerebellum
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Cerebellum is best developed in which animal?
Birds
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Which matter in inner in the spinal cord?
Grey matter
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What is found in grey matter?
Cell bodies and nonmyelinated axons
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What is found in white matter?
Myelinated nerve fibres
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What is found in the ventral root?
Axons of motor cells
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How many nervous system designs are there in the animal kingdom?
2: diffused nervous system and a CNS
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What phylum does hydra belong to?
Cnidaria
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Between which two layers is the network of neurons inbetween in hydra?
Ectoderm and Endoderm
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Are there sensory neurons in hydra?
No they are undifferentiated
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What acts as brain in planaria?
Bilobed mass composed of two ganglia
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Where are associative neurons present in planaria?
Brain and longitudinal nerves
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What specialized sensory organs are present in Planaria?
Eyes and chemoreceptors at the anterior region
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How many types of nerves in Planaria?
Two: Longitudinal and lateral
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What is a plexus?
A network of enrves
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Where is the deeper plexus of Planaria embedded?
In parenchyma
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Superficial nerve is present in hydra or Planaria?
Both but planaria has a network of nerves, hydra has one single nerve
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What is seratonin?
A neurotransmitter
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Which is the main neurotransmitter for neurons outside the CNS?
Acetylcholine
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What is normal and maximum speed of nerve impulse in humans?
100 and 120 ms-1
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What is saltatory conduction?
When impulse jumps between nodes of Ranvier in myelinated neurons
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What happens during an action potential?
Inner surface becomes more positive than outside
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What is the polarized state of a neuron?
The resting potential
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What causes depolarization of neuron?
Stimulus causing opening of sodium ion channels
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What causes re-polarization of neuron?
Potassium ions diffusing out
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How much time does it take to go from depolarization to re polarization?
2 to 3 milliseconds
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What is the value for active membrane potential?
50 mV
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Which neurons compose the peripheral nervous system?
Sensory and motor neurons
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What are ganglia?
The concentration of cell bodies of neurons
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How are axons bounded in nerves?
By connective tissue
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How many pairs of nerves arise from the brain?
12
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How many pairs of nerves arise from spinal cord?
31
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What kind of nerves arise from spinal cord?
Mixed
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Which neurons form the somatic nervous system?
Motor neurons
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Which system controls voluntary movements?
Somatic nervous system
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Which neurons form autonomic nervous system?
Motor neurons
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How many parts is the autonomic nervous system divided into?
Two, sympathetic nervous system and para sympathetic nervous system
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How many neurons and ganglions are used by each of the autonomic nervous systems?
Two neurons and one ganglion
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Where do the ganglion nerve fibers arise for the sympathetic nervous system?
Middle portion of spinal cord
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Which autonomic nervous system is associated with fight or flight?
Sympathetic nervous system
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Which nerves form the para sympathetic nervous system?
A few cranial nerves including vagus nerve together with nerves from bottom of spinal cord
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Which autonomic nervous system is associated with relaxed state?
Parasympathetic system
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Which nervous disorder has involuntary tremors, rigidity and diminished motor power?
Parkinson's disease
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Does Parkinson's affect mental faculty?
No
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What is the suspected cause of Parkinson's?
Cell death in area of brain that produces dopamine
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What is the onset age of Parkinson's?
Usually 50 to 60
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What is a drug for Parkinson's?
L Dopa
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Which natural protein has shown to boost uptake of dopamine?
Glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor
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What is epilepsy?
A convulsive disorder of nerves
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Epilepsy causes excessive electric discharge where?
In grey matter
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What is onset age for epilepsy?
Before 30
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What is the test for epilepsy?
Electroencephalography
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What aggravates epilepsy?
Alcohol
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What contributes to onset of Alzheimer's?
Aluminium
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Which part of the nervous system does nicotine affect directly?
Post synaptic membrane in CNS and PNS
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What are adverse effects of nicotine?
Vomiting, Diarrhea and water retention
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What form of coordination is found in plants?
Hormonal only
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How many types of plant movement are there?
2 autonomic and paratonic
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What is meant by etiolated?
When plants grow long and fail to form chlorophyll due to absence of light
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What are calluses?
Masses of amorphous material with poor differentiation
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What are galls?
Growths on a plant that are induced by parasites and have highly organized growth
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Bacterial tumors in plants are more or less differentiated than other types of galls?
Less
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How many endocrine glands/tissues are in humans?
20
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Name two protein hormones
Insulin and glucagon
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Name three amino acid hormones
Epinephrine, thyroxine, norepinephrine
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Name two polypeptide hormones
Vasopressin and oxytocin
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Name three steroid hormones
Testosterone, estrogen, cortisone
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What produces oxytocin and vasopressin?
Neurosecretory cells in hypothalamus
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Where is vasopressin stored?
Nerve endings in posterior pituitary gland
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What are circadian biorhythms?
Those which happen every 24 hours
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What is another name for circadian rhythms?
Biurnal rhythms
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What are circannual rhythms?
Those that occur every year
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What is another name for pituitary gland?
Hypophysis cerebri
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What is the weight of hypophysis cerebri?
0.5 gm
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How is the pituitary gland connected to brain?
By the infundibulum
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Which lobe is often referred to as the master gland?
Anterior lobe of pituitary
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What are tropic hormones?
They control the secretion of hormones in other glands
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What secretes SRF?
Hypothalamus
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What does STH do after growth has ceased?
Promote protein synthesis throughout the body
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What does excess of STH in early life lead to?
Gigantism
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What does excess of STH later in life lead to?
Acromegaly
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What is acromegaly?
Abnormal development of hands, feet, jaws etc
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What does lack of STH lead to?
Dwarfism
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What releases thyrotrophin releasing factor?
Hypothalamus
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What controls production of thyrotrophin releasing factor?
Level of thyroxine in the blood
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What releases corticotrophin releasing factor?
Hypothalamus
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What controls production of corticotrophin releasing factor?
Level of steroids in blood and stress induced nervous stimulation
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What are Gonadotrophic hormones?
FSH, LH, Prolactin
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What is LH called in males?
Interstitial cell stimulating hormone ICSH
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What is prolactin often confused with?
Leutotrophic hormone
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Does prolactin have a releasing or inhibiting factor?
Inhibiting
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Which hormone stimulates milk production?
Prolactin
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What does FSH do in males?
Stimulates development of germinal epithelium and production of sperm
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Which hormones maintain the corpus luteum?
LH and prolactin
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Which cells secrete testosterone?
Interstitial cells
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What hormone is produced by median lobe?
Melanophore stimulating hormone
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What inhibits production of melanophore stimulating hormone?
Hypothalamus
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What governs secretion of melanophore stimulating hormone?
Sunlight
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Excess MSH is released in which disease?
Addison's disease
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What is another name for vasopressin?
ADH
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What detects changes in osmotic pressure of blood?
Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus
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What disease is caused by lack of ADH?
Diabetes insipidus
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What stimulates release of oxytocin?
Distension of cervix, decrease in progesterone, neural stimuli during parturition and suckling
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What causes milk ejection from mammary glands?
Oxytocin
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What produces gastrin?
Mucosa of pyloric region of stomach
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Which hormone causes development of secondary sexual characteristics?
Oestrogen
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Under the influence of oestrogen what happens to some cells of the uterine wall?
They become glandular and secrete proteinaceous stuff taken up by the embryo
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What suppresses ovulation?
Progesterone
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Where do spermatozoa develop?
In coiled seminiferous tubules
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What hormones do interstitial cells produce?
Testosterone and 17 beta hydroxytestosterone
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What are the structural and functional units of chemical coordination?
Hormone producing cells and neurosecretory cells
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What are auxins?
Indole acetic acid and its variants
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How many lobes in thyroid gland?
Two lobes
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Where is thyroid gland situated?
Below the larynx
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What is another name for thyroxine?
Tetraiodo-thyonine T4
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What produces calcitonin hormone?
Thyroid hormone
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What causes brain cells to differentiate?
Thyroxine and tri-ido thyronine
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What brings about metamorphosis in amphibians?
Thyroxine and tri-idothyronine
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What does excess thyroxine cause?
Graves' disease
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What are the symptoms of Graves' disease?
Exophthalmic goiter and increase in basal metabolic rate
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What is the cause of Graves' disease?
An abnormal body protein which continuously stimulates the thyroid to excessive secretion
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What does lack of thyroxine cause?
Cretenism
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What does lack of thyroxine later in life cause?
Myxoedema
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What stimulates production of calcitonin?
High calcium ion concentration in blood
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Where are the parathyroid glands?
Embedded in the posterior part of the lateral lobes of the thyroids
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What do auxins cause in stems?
Cell enlargement in the area behind apex
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What do auxins cause in cambium?
Cell division
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What do auxins cause in roots?
Promote cell growth in low concentration, inhibit it in high concentrations
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What do auxins do in shoots?
Promote bud initiation but sometimes act antagonistic to cytokinins and is inhibitory
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What kind of dominance do auxins promote?
Apical dominance
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Can auxins induce parthenocarpy?
Yes
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Which hormones delay leaf aging?
Auxins, Gibberellins (in a few species), Cytokinins
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Which hormones inhibit abscission?
Auxins,
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What are the three commercially produced auxins?
Naphthalene acetic acid, indole propionic acid, 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid
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What inhibits sprouting of potatoes?
2,4 D
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How are gibberellins commercially made?
By fungus culture
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What does gibberellin do in meristem and cambium?
Promote cell division and enlargement (in the presence of auxins)
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What is bolting and which hormone causes it?
When plants grow quickly, stop flowering and set seed. Gibberellins
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Can gibberellin induce parthenocarpy?
Sometimes
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What does gibberellin do in apical dominance?
Enhance action of auxins
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Which hormones break bud and seed dormancy?
Gibberllin, Cytokinin, Ethene (last two only bud)
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What kind of plants does gibberllin promote flowering in?
Long day plants, antagonistic to Abscisic acid
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What is used to grow seedless grapes?
Gibberellin
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What is used in brewing industry to stimulate alpha amylase production in barley?
GA3
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What improves storage life of bananas and grape fruits by delaying ripening?
Gibberellin
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What do cytokinins do in apical meristem and cambium?
Promote stem growth
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Which hormone inhibits primary root growth?
Cytokinins
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Which hormone promotes lateral root growth?
Cytokinins
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Can cytokinin induce parthenocarpy?
No
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What promotes stomatal opening?
Cytokinin
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What promotes flowering in pineapples?
Ethene
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What does ethephon break into?
Ethene
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Which part of the neuron contains nissl's granules?
Cell body
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What kind of endings do nociceptors have?

Back

Undifferentiated endings

Card 3

Front

Which receptors produce the sensation of pain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What kind of endings do mechanoreceptors have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are modalities of sensation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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