cooperation

what species did Clutton-Brock (1993) study regarding cooperatioon?
meerkats. found that most helpers are the offspring of the dominant female
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why is cooperation an enigma?
natural selection states that individuals maximise their own fitness by behaving selfishly. ccoperative breeding is where individuals behave altruistically to raise the offspring of others
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what's Hamilton's rule?
altruism can evolve as long as the benefits of altruistic acts fall on individuals genetically related to the owner. altriuism can evolve in a population if the fitness cost to the donor is less than the fitness benefit to the recipient
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what's kin selection?
where two related individuals cooperate. relatedness of an individual profiting from an altruistic act must be higher than cost/ benefit ratio this act imposes
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what was found by Sherman (1981) in the belding ground squirrel study?
the females cooperate to defend each others nests against infanticidal intruders. if females had close relatives nearby they would be more likely to give an alarm call
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give an example of extreme altruism
black lace-weaver spider. mother would offer herself as food for her offspring
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what are the two main categories of helping?
helpers at the nest-1 breding pair with younger individuals that help, plural breeders-several males and females share a nest and raise a communal brood
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give an example of helpers at the nest
Woolfenden and Fitzpatrick (1984) florida scrub jay. isolated patches of breeding jays, over half breeding pairs have helpers. breeders with helpers have 85% chance survival compared to 77% without
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why don't more individuals raise their own young?
mortality is increased when young birds set off on their own. helping acts as training. helping aids the survival of their parents. also too few areas of prime habitat available
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what happens if territory becomes available?
in 1979-1980 half of the adults died due to disease as a result most birds established their own territories the following year
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give an example of plural breeders
acorn woodpeckers (Koenig et al 1984). up to 15 individuals 2 breeders of each sex. all defend territory and feed young-share same nest
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Card 2

Front

why is cooperation an enigma?

Back

natural selection states that individuals maximise their own fitness by behaving selfishly. ccoperative breeding is where individuals behave altruistically to raise the offspring of others

Card 3

Front

what's Hamilton's rule?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what's kin selection?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what was found by Sherman (1981) in the belding ground squirrel study?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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