Controlling Fertility

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How can oestrogen be used as a method of contraception?
If oestrogen is taken every day, it keeps the the level permanently high. Therefore, it inhibits the production of FSH, and after a while egg development and production stop.
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How can progesterone be used as a method of contraception?
It stimulates the production of thick cervical mucus which prevents any sperm reaching an egg
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When was the pill first made?
The first version was made in the 1950s
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What did this early version of the pill contain?
It contained high levels of oestrogen and progesterone (known as the combined oral contraceptive pill)
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Why does the pill now contain lower doses of oestrogen?
There were concerns about a link between oestrogen in the pill and side effects like blood clots
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What are some pros of the pill?
1. It's over 99% effective at preventing pregancy 2. It reduces the risk of getting some types of cancer
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What are some cons of the pill?
1. It isn't 100% effective 2. It can cause some side effects (like headaches and nausea) 3. It doesn't protect against STDs (now known as STIs)
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What is an alternative to the pill but isn't as effective?
A progesterone-only pill. It also has less side-effects
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What can be done to increase fertility?
The hormones FSH and LH can be injected to stimulate egg release in the ovaries
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What is a pro to having FSH and LH injections?
It helps many woman to become pregnant if they previously couldn't... obviously
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What are some cons to having FSH and LH injections?
1. It doesn't always work, so it can be expensive if women have them many times 2. Too many eggs could be stimulated, resulting in unexpected multiple pregancies
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What is another method of helping couples have children?
IVF (in vitro fertilisation) - 'in vitro' literally means 'in glass'
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What does the first stage of IVF involve?
It involves collecting eggs from a woman's ovaries and fertilising them in a lab using the man's sperm. These are then grown into embryos
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What is the second stage?
Once the embroys are tiny balls of cells, one or two of them are transferred to the woman's uterus to improve the chance of pregancy
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What is given before egg collection and why?
FSH and LH are given to stimulate egg production (so that more than one egg can be collected)
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What is a pro of IVF?
Fertility treatment can give an infertile couple a child
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What are some cons of IVF?
1. Some women have strong reaction to the hormones 2. There have been some reports of an increased risk of cancer due to hormonal treatment (though this isn't proved) 3. Multiple births are possible (can be risky for mother and babies)
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Card 2

Front

How can progesterone be used as a method of contraception?

Back

It stimulates the production of thick cervical mucus which prevents any sperm reaching an egg

Card 3

Front

When was the pill first made?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did this early version of the pill contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why does the pill now contain lower doses of oestrogen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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