Controlled and automatic processing in selective attention and cocktail party problem

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What is the cocktail party problem?
Having all attention on one stimulus and then having it diverted by hearing your name across the room.
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What is controlled processing?
Processing that requires attentional control and uses Working Memory capacity
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What does controlled processing facilitate?
Long term learning
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What is automatic processing?
Once learned operates independently and uses no Working Memory resources or attention
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Who proposed the information processing theory and what year?
Broadbent (1958)
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What is the concept of this theory based on?
The analogy that human processing has limited capacity
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What does the theory comprise of?
That an information machine must be able to do: registration, encoding, storage, retrieval, recoding and output
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What is the stage analysis strategy?
Input is processed and recoded to make output, which then becomes the input for the next stage
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Who proposed the information processing model and which year?
Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968
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What is the process?
Encoding and recoding, storage and retrieval
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What does the buffer store do?
Holds for short amount of time
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What does the short-term store do?
Processing
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What does the long term store do?
Leads to retrieval
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What is a criticism of this?
It is outdated and separate stores have been more or less disproved
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Who studied air traffic controllers and what year was the study?
Cherry, 1953
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What do air traffic controllers have to do?
Pick out one message from many
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Air traffic controllers can pick out messages based on .... but not... cues
Physical, semantic
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What did Broadbent use in his split span study and what did it entail?
Dichotic listening and different numbers in each ear
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What did they find?
Processing can only time share and not listen to both at once
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Which year was Broadbent's split span study?
1954
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Who studied audio typists and which year?
Spelke, Hirst and Neisser, 1976
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What did they ask ppts. to do?
Audio type and read book passage
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What did they find at first
Performance was very poor
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After how many hours of practice did performance improve to a level where both was automatic
3000 hours
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Who did a variation on the Sternberg task and which year?
Neisser, 1967
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What was the method?
Cross out occurrences of specified digits
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What happened when only letters were used?
There was a mean increase of time with more letters?
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What happened when numbers were on a background of letters?
No increase in time with increase of numbers
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What does this mean?
Infinite scanning speed capacity
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What system has an involvement with controlled processing?
Anterior Attentional System
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Who suggested this?
Posner and Peterson (1990)
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What is its involvement with controlled processing?
Involvement of AAS decreases as processes become more automatic
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What did sternberg's task measure?
Capacity
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What year was it?
1966
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What did it involve?
Exhaustive scanning of each item in positive set
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How long did it take per item
38ms
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When was it slower?
When stimuli was more complex
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What is the Yerkes-Dodson law?
Too much arousal (stress) leads to poorer performance
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When the task is harder what happens to the optimal level of arousal?
Gets lower
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How can this be combatted?
Overtraining and relaxation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is controlled processing?

Back

Processing that requires attentional control and uses Working Memory capacity

Card 3

Front

What does controlled processing facilitate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is automatic processing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who proposed the information processing theory and what year?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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