Contenders for power

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Who decided matters of policy and issued instructions to be followed by the rest of the party?
The politburo
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How many members did the politburo have?
Fewer than ten
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Who out of the contenders for power had a seat on the politburo?
All of them
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What didn't Bukharin have compared to the other members?
A vote as a candidate
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Who became chairman of the central committee on Lenin's death?
Kamenev
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Who elected members to the politburo?
The central committee
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Who put the policy decisions into practice?
The Secretariat
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What was the role of the General secretary?
The head of the secretariat
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Who was General Secretary?
Stalin
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Who was responsible for hiring party workers and for interpreting and implementing policy decisions?
The General Secretary
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What was the politburo dependent on?
The secretariat for information and support
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What was underestimated?
The power of the General Secretary
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What was set up by Lenin to eradicate opposition?
The Central Control Commission
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Who was head of the Central Control Commission and what could they do?
Stalin, he could fire anyone
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What was the comitern set up to do?
To encourage and coordinate marxist revolutionaries in other countries
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Who was head of the Comitern?
Zinoviev
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Who controlled the Moscow and Petrograd branches of the communist party?
Zinoviev and Kamenev
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What was a criticism of Kamenev's leadership?
He was a poor local administrator and so lacked the support of the Moscow party
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Who was editor of the communists two most influential newspapers, city newspapers and what did this mean?
Bukharin which meant he could prevent his competitors the support and access to the press and influence public opinion
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Who was in charge of party theology?
Bukharin
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Who wrote the ABC of Communism?
Bukharin- it was the handbook for communists
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Who was responsible for communist education academies?
Bukharin
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What was the Sovnarkom?
The ministerial committee at the head of the Soviet Government
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What was the commissar for nationalities?
The person responsible for overseeing the affairs of those non-Russians within the communist party
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Who was the commissar for nationalities?
Stalin
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What percentage of the USSR was non-Russian?
Some 50 per cent
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Who had the loyalty of the non-Russians?
Stalin
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Who was originally chair of the Sovnarkom?
Lenin
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Who was originally the deputy to the chair of the Sovnarkom?
Kamenev
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Who did Lenin offer his position as Chair of the Sovnarkom to?
Trotsky but he refused
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Who acted as Chair of the Sovnarkom when Lenin was ill?
Kamenev
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What was the Rabkrin?
The body that rooted out corruption amongst government workers
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Who was made leader of the Rabkrin?
Stalin
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Who wasn't on the Sovnarkom?
Zinoviev and Bukharin
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Who formed the triumvirate?
Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev
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Why was the Trimuvirate created?
To oppose Trotsky
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What theory divided contenders?
Leninism
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What was Leninism?
The ideas of Lenin
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What happened to Lenin's ideas over time?
They changed so his opinions were never truly clear
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What was the first form of Leninism?
This focused on Lenin's policies throughout the Civil War where he abolished all capitalism and was at his most radical
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Who supported the first form of Leninism?
The radical left of the party and Trotsky
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What was the second form of Leninism?
It focused on the NEP and the more right-winged policies of Lenin. It focused on education and gradual change rather than radical revolution.
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Who supported the second form of Leninism?
The right side of the party and Bukharin
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Who switched from the left to the right in 1925?
Zinoviev and Kamenev
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Who stayed in the middle of Leninism?
Stalin
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What had happened by 1923 to the economy?
It had stabilised
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What economic policy divided the party?
How to continue the NEP and whether to
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What did the left of the party argue about the NEP?
That it was ideologically misguided as it favoured the peasants and restored power in the hands of the capitalists which undermined the working class and betrayed the revolution
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What did Lenin believe was necessary before communism was put into place in the economy?
Capitalism
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What had the NEP failed to do?
Deliver industrial growth and improve the conditions or workers
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What had the NEP done?
Stabilised the economy and stimulated agriculture
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What did the left of the communists want?
To heavily tax the peasants
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What did the right of the party want for the economy?
To introduce communism at a snails pace
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What did the right of the party say that the government relied on?
The alliance of the peasants and workers
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What did the right of the party want with the NEP?
To continue it
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How long did Bukharin want the NEP to last for?
20 years
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Did Stalin support the NEP and why?
He did through the 1920's and agreed with Bukharin, but he was quick to abandon it when it started to fail. He never sided with the left as this would have meant an alliance with Trotsky
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What was permanent revolution?
Worldwide communist revolution
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Who supported permanent revolution and why?
Trotsky as he thought that Russia could not implament communism without the help of other countries resources if they were to fall to communism and support Russia
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What did the right of the party think of Trotsky's permanent revolution?
That he was pessamistic and defeatist
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Who came up with the idea of socialism in one country?
Stalin and Bukharin `
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What was socialism in one country and why was it sucessful?
The idea that Russia could be sucessfuo without foreign aid as it had the stability between peasants and workers. This played on Russia's nationalism.
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What was the left wing afraid of in the future of the revolution?
That the beauraucrats had taken over and would remove power from ordinary members
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What did Trotsky suggest to combat this?
A greater democracy and openness within the party
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What did the right of the communists fear?
Trotsky installing himself as a military dictator like Napoleon in the French Revolution
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What did Trotsky's statement in 1927 say and do?
That he would presume the position of dictator if Russia was being attacked by foreigners. This didn't help the right's fears.
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When and why was the triumvirate formed?
To keep Trotsky out of power and 1923
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During 1923 what did Trotsky lead?
The Left Opposition
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What was the left-opposition?
An opposition group to the triumvirate that proposed alternative policies.
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What did Trotsky need to take power?
A majority in the Politburo
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Who had the majority in the politburo in 1923?
The triumvirate
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What threatened the majority of the triumvirate?
Lenin's testament
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What did Zinoviev and Kamenev do to prevent Stalin form being sacked for Lenin's words in his testament?
Argued his case saying that he had changed and thus there was no need to remove him. This was accepted by the Central Committee.
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How did Lenin's testament become a secret?
Zinoviev and Kamenev argued that the testament undermined the authority of government and should therefore be kept a secret, the central committee agreed.
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How did Stalin use his position as General Secretary to aid the removal of Trotsky?
He drew up the list of candidates from the local bodies to go to the party congress where the central committee was elected. This meant that the majority chosen supported the triumvirate.
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How did Trotsky let himself down?
Due to bad health he neglected his position in the Politburo and failed to make alliances with other communists.
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How did Stalin create the image that Trotsky was disloyal to Lenin?
He lied to Trotsky about the date of lenin's funeral so Trotsky could not attend
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How did Zinoviev and Kamenev criticise Trotsky's disloyalty to Lenin?
They criticised his book- The Lessons of October and said that it undermined Lenin's role in the revolution and focused on his own role, they created the term Trotskyist and attempted to show Trotsky as a menshevik. They emphasised fights between L&T
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When was the left of communism and Trotsky destroyed?
At the thirteenth party congress
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When and why did the triumvirate split?
1925 as they no longer had a common enemy and disgreedf on world or Russian revolution
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What did Zinoviev and Kamenev then form?
The new opposition
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What did Stalin do after the end of the Triumvirate?
Formed the Duumvirate with Bukharin as they both agreeed on the contiuation of the NEP and socialism in one country which allowed them both to collectively control most of Russia
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What did the New opposition oppose?
The NEP and socialism in one country
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How was the new opposition defeated?
In a debate at the forteenth party conference which showed opposition to them. Stalin removed them from their positions and they did not get re-elected
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What happened to Trotsky in 1925 in response to the thought of him becoming a military dictator?
He was forced to resign as head of the Red Army
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What happened to the NEP during 1926-27?
It started to fail. There wasn't enough industrial goods to satisfy the peasants and so they stopped growing extra grain to sell and buy goods this caused food shortages in the cities and rising grain prices
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What did the failure of the NEP cause?
The return of Trotsky who saw the need for reform and his alliance with Zinoviev and Kamenev
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What was the united opposition?
The alliance between Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev
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How was the united opposition stopped?
They were expelled from the party. Trotsky was exciled and Zinoviev and Kamenev were introduced after apologising but their reputation was shattered.
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What ended Stalin and Bukharin's alliance?
When Stalin rejected the NEP
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Who did Tomsky and Rykov support?
Bukharin
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After their split, who seemed to be in a stronger position?
Bukharin
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Why did Bukharin loose his credibility as party theorist?
Due to the failure of the NEP
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How did Stalin grow as a theorist?
He published his book on leninism
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How did Stalin eliminate Bukharin?
By referencing his arguments with Lenin, calling Bukharin a Trotskyist for accusing him of turning the party into a bureaucracy, by attacking his lower supporters, circulating a rumour that he was alliancing himself with Zinoviev and Kamenev so
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How did Stalin eliminate Bukharin continued?
He organised a private meeting with Kamenev and Zinoviev, thus Stalin accused him of factionalism. He prevented Bukharin from attending his meeting by delaying his plane.
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Card 2

Front

How many members did the politburo have?

Back

Fewer than ten

Card 3

Front

Who out of the contenders for power had a seat on the politburo?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What didn't Bukharin have compared to the other members?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who became chairman of the central committee on Lenin's death?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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