Contemporary Study (cognitive psychology)

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Who conducted the contemporary study?
Steyvers and Hemmer (2012)
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What did they believe about previous research into reconstructive memory?
That in the previous studies, the laboratory based investigations were designed to induce false recall, this is due to the fact that they with held normal objects from scenes, manipulating the environment and so it wasn't representative
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What was the aim of their study?
To investigate the interaction between episodic and prior knowledge in naturalistic environments (how prior knowledge effected recall of naturalistic everyday settings)
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What were the 5 scenes they used as their naturalistic environments?
Dining room, office, urban, hotel and kitchen
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What was the first initial test?
To asses prior knowledge- They got 22 participants (random sample from experimental participant pool in California Uni), they had to list all the objects they would expect to see in certain settings and the frequency of objects were recorded
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What was the second initial test?
To measure perception- Different sample, shown 25 images of the 5 scenes and asked to name all the objects they could see
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Why did they have to carry out a perception test?
It was important control to make sure that objects weren't overlooked due to them not being perceptible
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What did they do with the results of both initial tests?
They took the frequencies of objects named in both tests and created 2 lists (top 10 most frequently recalled and the low frequency recall objects)
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Why did they do the initial tests?
To use as a control and to compare their results against prior knowledge
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What was the main procedure?
They got a different set of 49 Px's, 2 stimulus for each scene was picked from the initial tests, lx's only saw 1 of each scene in random allocation, then they had to recall objects from each scene
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How did they alter the extent to which the participants used prior knowledge?
The exposure was manipulated so for one image they would view it for 2 seconds and then the other they would view it for 10 seconds (short exposure would rely more on prior knowledge)
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What memory store was responsible for correct recall of objects not consistent with a scene (e.g. teapot in an office)?
Episodic Memory- memory of events
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What memory store was responsible for incorrect recall of objects missing from the image?
Semantic Memory (Prior knowledge)- memory of facts and facts linked to facts (e.g. computer in office)
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After the participants carried out free recall of all the objects, what did the researchers do to make the results easily quantifiable?
They normalised all the responses (e.g. silver car and cars changed to "car")
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What were the results?
From the initial test, they worked out probability of objects being recalled, however their error rates contradicted previous research and recall of correct objects which were unusual to the setting was high, meaning that they released on episodic
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What were the Conclusion?
1. in recall of naturalistic scenes prior knowledge (semantic memory) can contribute to accurate recall in episodic memory tasks 2. espisodic memory is enhanced by using semantic memory in form of schemas,
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Generalisability
Naturalistic scene, can be generalised, however lab setting lowers generalisability a little because it lowers ecological validity
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Reliability
Was realiable, god controls, random allocation, exposure to picture was manipulated, makes it highly credible
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Application
Can be applied to eye witness testimonies, semantic memory can enhance recall of episodic events, suggesting EWTs are effective
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did they believe about previous research into reconstructive memory?

Back

That in the previous studies, the laboratory based investigations were designed to induce false recall, this is due to the fact that they with held normal objects from scenes, manipulating the environment and so it wasn't representative

Card 3

Front

What was the aim of their study?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the 5 scenes they used as their naturalistic environments?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the first initial test?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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