Constitution Flashcards

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Articles of confederation?
The compact made between the 13 original states that formed the basis of their government from 1781 until it was replaced by constitution in 1789.
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Confederacy
A league of independent states in which the central government lacks significant powers and resembles an international organisation (such as the United Nations) than a traditional national government.
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Philadelphia convention?
The convention held in Philadelphia 1787 which framed the constitution. Its original purpose was merely to revise the articles of confederation but the delegates instead decided to draft a new document.
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State of Union Address
An annual speech made by the president to a joint session of congress meeting in the chamber of the House of Representatives in which he lays out proposed legislation for the coming year.
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Watergate Affair
Collection of illegal activities conducted by senior members of Nixon's administration and the attempted cover up. These illegal activities included bugging, bribery and use of the CIA. Lead to Nixon's resignation in 1974
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When was constitution written?
1787
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New federalism?
An approach to federalism characterised by a return of powers and responsibilities from federal gov to state govs.
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Where does 'bible belt' stretch from?
Texas to Virginia.
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Liberal North-East states?
Massachusetts, Rhode Island
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Liberal West states?
California (LA and San Fran)
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New Jersey plan at Philadelphia convention?
Favoured by states with smaller populations, favoured single chamber legislature, 1 vote for each state and limited powers.
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Virginia plan at Philadelphia convention?
Favoured largely populated states. Involved a strong centralised gov based on a bicameral legislature and strong executive chosen by legislature. Representatives elected on proportional representation.
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Connecticut Comprimise?
Stated that the legislature should be bicameral. In lower house (representatives) the states would be represented proportionally, but in upper house states would be represented equally. In September 1787 this was complete and the US had a constitutio
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Vague phrases in constitution?
'Common defence and general welfare of US' and 'To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers'.
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What doest constitution include anything about?
Presidential primaries, congressional committees, cabinet, EXOP, judicial review.
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First stage to amend constituttion?
2/3 vote by both houses of congress OR propose by 2/3 vote of national convention called by congress on request of 2/3 state legislatures (never been used)
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Second stage to amend constitution?
passage by 3/4 state legislatures (used 28 times), OR passage by 3/4 special state convention (used once to repeal prohibition).
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Ruling in [Coleman v Miller]?
Amendments can be ratified whenever. E.g. 27th amendment was approved in 1789 but not ratified until 1992.
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Failed constitutional amendments?
Death penalty abolition (4 times), and balanced budget amendment.
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Proposed amendments not ratified?
Equal Rights amendment - was approved in march 1972. Deadline of ratification has been extended but it is still un ratified. Also District of Columbia Voting Rights - would have given columbia residents full representation.
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Amendments awaiting ratification?
Child Labour amendment - would prohibit labor of persons under 18. Was ratified by 28 states.
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When were Bill of Rights Ratified?
1791.
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1st amendment?
Freedom of speech
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12th amendment?
Abolished slavery
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5th amendment?
rights of accused person.
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8th amendment?
free from cruel and unusual punishment.
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What would branches of gov be under founding fathers principle?
Independent yet co-equal, separate in terms of personnel, operate checks and balances, promote limited government.
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Check by executive on legislature?
Recommend legislation
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Checks by executive on judiciary?
Nominates all judges.
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Checks by legislature on executive?
Can amend, block or reject legislation, override a veto, power of purse, declare war, confirm appointments, impeach.
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Checks by legislature on judiciary?
Remove from office, propose constitutional amendment.
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Checks by judiciary on legislature/executive?
judicial review.
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Developments of federalism - factors causing more federalism?
Westward expansion, growth in population, industrialisation, improved communication, america's foreign policy role and world-power status.
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5 main reasons for the expansion of federalism under Bush?
Iraq war, homeland security issues, expansion of medicare, no child left behind, wall street and banking collapse in 2008.
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Federalism under Obama?
Focused on domestic policies e.g. race to the top which invested $4.35 billion in education. Also reauthorisation of State Childrens Health Programme which was an extra $32 billion granted to expand health coverage programmes, added a cigarette ta
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Left wing views on constitution?
Main concern is restrictions may hinder gov ability to help, e.g. Roosevelt's New Deal was hampered by SC. Welcome gov intervention to improve lives. Extend right to vote (campaigned for 19th nd 21st amendment).
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Centrists view on constitution?
Shaped identity of country. Lack of progress frustrating. Checks and balances not working (e.g. congress didn't hold bush to account regarding Iraq). Rights don't work (e.g. Guantanamo Bay). US system will change over time.
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Conservative view on constitution?
Disagree with SC extending meanings. Want to see constitution limit federal gov. Like a balanced budget amendment. Want t see it promote moral behaviour, e.g. favours prohibition of abortion/gay marriage. Defend second amendment. Like separate branch
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Confederacy

Back

A league of independent states in which the central government lacks significant powers and resembles an international organisation (such as the United Nations) than a traditional national government.

Card 3

Front

Philadelphia convention?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

State of Union Address

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Watergate Affair

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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