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  • Created by: Lauren
  • Created on: 08-05-14 10:21
our moment to moment awareness of oneself and environment
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Four features of consciousness
Subjective/Private, Dynamic (ever changing), self reflective, intimately connect with selective attention
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Selective attention
awareness of some stimuli and not others
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3 ways of measuring
Self-report, behavioural, physiological
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Ask people to decribe their inner experienes, intraspection for primary source but inaccurate and maybe dishonest
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record performance on special tasks, objective but require inference of state of mind
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establish correspondance between body and mental states, objective and detailed but very copmlex
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Freudian three levels of concious
Conscious, preconscious mental events, unconscious events
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Thoughts and perceptions of which we are aware
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Preconscious mental events
outside current awareness but recalled under circumstances, reminded of a friend
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Unconcious events
Cannot be brought into conscious awareness under ordinary circumstances, might be repressed memories
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Subliminal psycodynamic activation
Flash a sentence such as "mummy and I are one" and either consistent with Freud of not, perform better when consistent
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Cognitive view point 3 sections
Controlled processing, automated processing, divided attention
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Controlled (conscious)
concious use of attention, very focused, learning to ride a bike, open to change
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Automated (unconscious)
no conscious awareness or effort, fast routine but set in a way
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Divided attention
attention to and perform more than one activity at a time, some clash such as listening to two people talk
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Visual agnosia
no ability to consciously perceive shape and size but can perform card-insertion
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visually recongise objects not faces but consciously look at familiar faces more than unfamiliar faces
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blindess of part of visual field but still respond to stimuli, Type 1 (discriminations in blind area but no feeling) Type 2 (rapid motions and orientations are a feeling)
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exposure to a stimulus influences how you then respond to that same or another stimulus
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Krosnick's view
subliminal level images or words and then another stimulus and see how it's affected
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Emotional unconscious
a bad mood might be caused by experiences in your day that you're unconscious of
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4 reasons why we have an unconsciousness
summary of internal and external stimuli, summary to brain regions to plan and decision make, ability to overide potentially dangerous impulses, allows us to deal with novel tasks
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process of concentrating on a feature and excluding others
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3 types of focused attention
Cocktail party Phenomenon, Attenuation Model, Objects or Locations
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Cocktail Party
Cherry - ability to focus in busy party, if name is mentioned then concentration flips
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Attenuation Model
Treisman - ability to turn down some aspects allowing less attention to be paid
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Selective attention
focus on one without being affected by distractions
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Object or locations
automaticity - the more we do a task the less conscious attention we need to apply to it
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Divided attention
ability to respond simulatneously to multiple tasks
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Cross model effects
using lips to supports the sound of a voice in a busy bar
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Simon and Chabris - fail to notice something has changed
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ERP measuring attention
event related potentials is recorded in waves, stronger when we are paying attention than not
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Two types of waves
Beta - when awake and alert, Alpha - patterns when your relaxed and drowsy
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Stage 1
light sleep, easily awakened, irregular wave patterns
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Stage 2
deeper sleep, more relaxed, dreams occur, harder to awake
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Stage 3
regular appearance of slow and large delta waves
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Stage 4
deepest sleep, delta waves dominate EEG patterns
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high arousal similar to daytime, sleep paralysis
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Paradoxical sleep
body highly aroused but little movement
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Pitcher and Walters - Skeep deprivation
deprived of sleep meat more poorly on crtiical thinking
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3 reasons why we need sleep
bodily restoration, evolved adaption (increased chance of survival), memory consolidation
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When do we dream?
during any stage of sleep
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Hypnagogic stage
transitional state from wake to stage 2
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Von de Castle thoughts on dreams
80% of dreams are negative
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Gender and dreams
women dream equal male and female, 2/3 male are men
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culture, experiences and current concerns can shape dreams
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Freudian theory of why we dream
Wish fulfillment, menifest content (surface story that dreamer reports), latent content (dreams disguised meaning), dream work (latent content into manifest)
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Dreams serve no function, product of REM, cerebal cortex creates a story for REM activity
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Cogntive approach
Problem solving (creative solutions), Cognitive process (dream and waking thoughts have same mental process, awoken thoughts skip like dreams)
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Day dreams
park of waking consciousness, stimulation when bored
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state of heightened suggestbilitiy, able to imagine situations as real
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Hypnotic Induction
one person leads another by hyponosis
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Hypnotic susceptibility scales
pass-fail suggestions read to a hypnotised person
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Dissociation theories
hypnosis is an altered state involving division of consciousness, two streams - one reaponds to hypnosis whilst background still aware
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Social-Cognitive theories
hypnotic experiences resut for expectations of people who are motivated, people emmerse themselves into the role
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Orne (1959)
55% told they would get muscle stiffening got it, hypnosis is based on expectation
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Hypnosis effect on brain
brain state altered, but social theories argue brain activity doesn't change
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Blood-brain barrier
special lining of tightly packed cells that let nutrients pass through so neurons function
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chemical substance carrying info from semantic space to neurons, muscles or glands - eg. dopamine, serotonin
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group of neurotransmitters with widespread and generalised influenced of semantic transmission
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What increases activity of a neurotransmitter?
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What three ways does it do this?
Enhance ability to synthesize, store and release neurotransmitters, bind with post-synaptic receptor sites, make it more difficult for neurotransmitters to deactivate
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Two examples
opiates, amphetamines
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What decreases the activity of a neurotransmitter?
Angtagonistic drug
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What two ways does it do this?
Reduce a neuron's ability to synthesize, store and release and prevent neurotransmitter from binding with postsynaptic neuron
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An example of this
Antipsychotics block dopamine receptors
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Two depressants
Alcohol, barbituarates, tranquillizers
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Alcohol myopia
short sighted thinking, lower concentration than when sober
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Three stimulants
Amphetamines, cocaine, ectasy
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What is an opiate?
opium and drugs derived from it - morphine, heroin
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Biological factors
identifical twins alcoholism concordance
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Psychological factors
beliefs and expectancies influence drug reactions, personality factor
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Circadian rhythms
daily biological cycles
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What are they regulated by?
Suprachiasmatic nuclei
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What is melatonin?
Hormone that has a relaxing effect on the body
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Why do some people get up early?
Body temperature, blood pressures and alertness peak earlier
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What are cacadian rhythms disrupted by?
Jet lag, working a night shift
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What is seasonal affective disorder?
A cycle tendancy to become psychologically depressed during certain seasons of the year
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Subliminal priming
information presented outside of our conscious awareness but affects our reactions to concious stimuli
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What is the REM rebound effect?
increase the amount of REM sleep after being deprived from it
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What is the procedure used to control whether a stimulus is perceived conciously or unconciously?
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Extreme daytime sleepiness and uncontrollable sleep attacks are known as
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Concious, preconcious and unconcious are three levels of
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When a person enter stage 2 sleep their brain patterns consist of
sleep spindles
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Four features of consciousness


Subjective/Private, Dynamic (ever changing), self reflective, intimately connect with selective attention

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Selective attention


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3 ways of measuring


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