conscience

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  • Created by: caitlin
  • Created on: 17-06-14 10:15
Aquinas (Overview)
By synderesis we instinctively understand the primary precepts of morality. Conscientia helps us work out the secondary precepts- right reason in agreement with nature. We bulid pronesis by following our conscience.
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Aquinas Meaning
We don't deliberately sin but follow apparent good believing it is good. Conscience is both a natural instinct and a process of reason. ST PAUL argued the Gentiles have the law "written on their hearts" and "woven into the fabric of our creation".
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Newman (Overview)
Conscience is our supreme guide and authority "a law, an authoritive voice". It is God given and perfected by faith. The Pope is not infallible and our Conscience is superior even to the Pope as our guide.
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Newman believed that the conscience of the Church was reflected in the views of the people.
the conscience "whispers" rather than shouts. Conscience "is a messenger of him,who,both in nature and in grace, speaks to use behind a veil, and teacjes and rules by his representatives". Newman saw the voice as evidence of a higher authority- GOD
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Strengths of Newman
BIBLICAL _ supports idea of God speaking directly. EXPERIENCE - confirms the conscience 'prmpts us' like a voice. INNATE- a faculty we are born with
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Weaknesses of Newman
CONFLICT - conscience can conflict with morality, Newman doesnt allow this. INCONSISTENCYin what God tells different people. AMBIGUITY in what God (Conscience) tells us
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Butler (Overview)
Conscience "belongs to our condition of being" - we're born with it. It is given by God "assigned by the author of life". It is authoritative = condems us when we're doing wrong
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Butler - a form of natural law as conscience stems from God given rational tendencies we have to pursue benevolence and pass judgement on self-love
A reflective principle as well as God-given intution. Conscience is INFALLIBLE.
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Strengths of Butler
PRINCIPLE is exalted and pragmitsim rejected. REASONABLE - as conscience is not just an instinct. REALISTIC in seeing a tension between self love and benevolence.
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Weaknesses of Butler
MISTAKES in conscience are possible. PSYCHOLOGY suggest conscience is an evironmental creation. GOD is assumed.
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Fromm (overview)
We adopt the authoritarian conscience by projecting our image of perfection onto another ; by accepting parental rule and exceptation; by adopting a belief system which is authoritian e.g religious.
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Fromm -Authoritarian conscience implies loss of autonomy.
Good conscience equates to 'pleasing authority'. Humanistic conscience only emerges if we think on common values and experiences. it is an "intuitive knowledge of what is human and inhuman, what is conducive to life and waht is destructive of life".
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Freudian Conscience (Overview)
conscience develops - it is not innate. it is produced by parents and society through praise and blame.KEY age is 3-5 years when the SUPER EGO forms. Can result in pathological guilt.
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Freudian Meaning - CONSCIOUS MIND - immediate awareness PRECONSCIOUS - suppressed memory, feeling, desire causiong guilt/pain
OEDIPUS COMPLEX - subconcious desire to kill our father and mate with our mother. PSYCHOANALYSIS - through interpretation of dreams we reveal the subconscious driving our ego.
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Strengths of Freud
LIBERATING - By understanding the role of the subconcious we can be freed from repressed urges. CULTURAL - attuned to cultural influences on moralilty. HUMANISTIC - gives an alternative, humanisitc basis of conscience
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Weaknesses of Freud
PSEUDO-SCIENCE - people say it can be falsified. OVER SEXUALISED - overplays the elements of sexual desire. RELATIVISTIC - seems to imply the consicence is purely cultural.
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Aquinas Meaning

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We don't deliberately sin but follow apparent good believing it is good. Conscience is both a natural instinct and a process of reason. ST PAUL argued the Gentiles have the law "written on their hearts" and "woven into the fabric of our creation".

Card 3

Front

Newman (Overview)

Back

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Card 4

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Newman believed that the conscience of the Church was reflected in the views of the people.

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Card 5

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Strengths of Newman

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