Conjugal roles

What theory has a positive view that the roles within households are becoming more equal?
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who identifies the instrumental and expressive roles?
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which role do women fufil and why?
expressive, due to biological reasons
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who says the family is becoming more symmetrical?
Wilmott and Young
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things that may have caused this change?
increase in divorce rates/ status of women. improved living standards encourage more home-centredness and decline of extended families, less pressure to take on traditional roles
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What would postmodernists say about these changes?
That they occur as there is a rise of individualism and weaker gender identities that restrict people into gender roles
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The functionalist view is supported by..
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who says..
were a long way from symmetrical but a 'lagged adaptation' is occuring where men will eventually catch up
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However they'd be massively critiqued by which theory?
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what did Ann Oakley find?
that although 72% of married men claim to help round the house at least once a week, they do all the nice bits
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Arlie Hoschild created the
Second shift - paid work and house work
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Duncombe and Marsden further this by saying..
The triple shift - includes emotion work aswell
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Marxists would argue the triple shift benefits the capitalist system how?
As women act as a safety valve (Zaretsky) to suppress opposition and the possibility of revolution from the proleriat& maintains the productivity. Ansley says women function to soak up male frustration
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Another feminist, Devine says ..
women are responsible for the childcare and housework and husbands just work.
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this results in them experiencing a burden which limits their..
social mobility
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Abbot (feminist) says
men gain mobility at the expense of women
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and as a result they lack economic power which leads to a lack of political power says who?
Pahl in 2004
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Womens lack of power can be seen in 4 areas:
sexual, political, economic and physical
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Stephen Edgell shows how women face a lack of economic power by decision making, what does he say?
men make the important, infrequent decisions such as moving house and major financial decisions, whereas women make less important ones around decoration, childrens clothes and food.
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However he may be dicredited as he wrote in 1980, as in 2001 the future foundation found..
The idea of a family purse dominated by male patriarchy is over, as the rising employment of women and divorce rates have driven financial freedom.
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they lack sexual ands physical power as
1 in 4 women suffer domestic abuse over their life-time and are more subject to ****.
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However we could argue that the contraceptive pill being available to all in the 1960's marks a way for the growth of female power, how?
As it gives them control over their fertility and unwanted babies.
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However radical feminist greer sees this negatively as she says..
it enhances patriarchy, as it means women can no longer say no to sex with their partner, for being fertile
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another act that made women experience increased sexual power was in 1991..
when **** within marriage became illegal
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modern research that supports the fact the family is not symmetrical comes from - Ramos (2003)
he says women do 4x more housework in British households compared to men
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who supported him by saying men pay 'lip service' to equal roles?
Kan in 2001, he found women still do the 'lions share' of household chores and do 3/4 of it.
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the Time Use survey (2005) also said
theres a clear divide, but men are more likely to do certain 'masculine' tasks such as taking out the bins.
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Nevertheless to support the growth of equality/ symmetrical families
stats show change
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how much has stay at home dads increased over the past 15 years (2010) in percent?
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how many women are now family bredwinners?
1 in 5
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compared to what percent in the 1960's?
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This growth towards symmetrical families is having a negative impact on men according to who?
Joseph Rowntree
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who says?
men are expected to be 'superdads' and have a 'dual burden', supported by the fact British fathers work the longest hours in the EU
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Furthermore, the rise of women in work leads to 'shift parenting' which can have a negative effect for all involved
ONS research (2004) - on average couples spend just 80 minutes a day together on leisure activites
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It is also leading to the exploitation of poor women, often from LDC's says who?
Polly toynbee - this is western feminisms dirty little secret. used to fill the care deficit
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Also fellow feminist Catherine Hakim critiques feminism by saying...
the home is the housewives choice - Preference theory. 20% home, 20% work, 60% both. Women are in conflict with one another
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


who identifies the instrumental and expressive roles?



Card 3


which role do women fufil and why?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


who says the family is becoming more symmetrical?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


things that may have caused this change?


Preview of the front of card 5
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