What is compliance?
Going along with others to gain their approval or avoid their disapproval
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What is internalisation?
Going along with others because you have accepted their point of view because it's consistent with your own
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What is the difference between the two?
Motivating factors (i.e. to fit in, may comply rather than internalise the groups attitude) Future Behaviour - likely to display what they have already learned
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What is the Key study to do with conformity?
Asch's vision study (1956)
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What did he do?
123 male American students were tested on a vision line test (with obvious answers), seated around table PP would always answer in the same order confederates and then PP. Confederates gave wrong answers 12/18 trials
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What did he find?
On 12 of the critical trials 36.8% made by PP were incorrect (conformed) Only 1/4 didn't conform
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Why did people conform?
Ash interviewed some of the men = 1) distortion of perception - saw lines same way as majority 2)distortion of judgement - doubted their own accuracy 3)Distortion of action - majority of PP knew they were right but conformed due to compliance
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What variations did he carry out?
Made difference between line lengths much smaller (correct answer less obvious) conformity increased
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Size of Majority
1/2 individuals conformity levels are low. Majority of 3 = conformity goes to 30% but firther increases did not increase conformity much more (size of majority important only up until a point)
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The Unanimity of the Majority
When PP were given the support of a confederate with theright answer or another confederate the conformity levels dropped from 32 to 5.5% when confederate gave a different wrong answer it dropped to 9%
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Who conducted a more recent study on the difficulty of the task?
Lucas 2009 - found the influence oon difficulty of the task is moderated by the self-efficacy of the PP - math problems in Asch type task high self-efficacy less likely to conform (i.e. if good at math wouldn't comply)
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What are critismsof the research?
Conducted in 50's America = low population and historical validity as PP were subjected to McCarthyism and Communist Scare so were more likely to comply (thought wrong to be different)
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Who repeated the study later ?
Perrin and Spencer repeated study in 1970 - in England using Science and Engineering students found out of 396 students only ONE conformed
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What different study did Perrin and Spencer do?
Did Asch's study on probation PP and probation officers - found - similar levels of conformity to Asch's study = when costs of nonconformity are high people are more likely to conform
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What is another limitation of Asch's study and how was this overcome?
Unconvincing confederates - Mori + Arai (2010) overcame this by using 3 pp used glasses with special filters and 4th wore different set - each PP saw the same thing but onesaw them differently - results closely matchedthat of Asch's study
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Whatmeta-analysis was done on culture and conformity?
Smith and Bond - meta-analysis between 1952-94 of 133 studies in 17countries found - UK and US to be INDIVIDUALIST and Japan and Fiji to be COLLECTIVIST (higher levels of conformity)
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Limitations of culture analysis?
may be an oversimplification as in each country their are individual differences. Task more meaningful in one country - problem of cultural differences being measured rather than conformity
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Card 2


What is internalisation?


Going along with others because you have accepted their point of view because it's consistent with your own

Card 3


What is the difference between the two?


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Card 4


What is the Key study to do with conformity?


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Card 5


What did he do?


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