Concepts and Methods

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Imperato McGinley (1974)
Pseudo-hermaphrodites in Dominican village. XY but lack the enzyme to convert testosterone. At birth appear female and treated as such but at puberty develop male genitalia and identity now male. Support for genitalia, hormones and social influece
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Zouh (1995)
BST twice as big in males and this correlates with gender identity
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Bem (1994)
Erotic becomes exotic, environmental influence on sexual orientation
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Bailey (2000)
Mild/moderate effect of genes on orientation. MZ males = 20% DZ = 0%
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Ax (1953)
Physiological anger vs fear. Participants insulted or shocked and heart rate/skin conductivity ect. measured. Anger and fear are physiologically different. Support for James Lang Theory and two factor theory
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Holman (1966)
World War two soilders with spinal cord lesions, can still feel emotion but 'no heart' behind it. Support for two factor theory
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Schachter and Singer (1962)
Injected with adrenaline, different information. Those informed correctly did not 'catch' emotion of stooge. Support for two factor theory as shows cognitive appraisal effects emotion felt.
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Piaget's stage theory
Sensiormotor --> pre-oporational -->concrete operational --> Formal oporational
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Vygotsky's Socio-Cultural Theory
Social scaffolding, work as an apprentice of others until language formation, they being to form own. Talking out loud, later becomes internal thought.
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Rubin (2002)
Temperaments are stable over time and prediction to future depends on parents response to temprament
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Bowlby (1969)
Indiscriminate, discriminate, specific and goal corrected (3 years).
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Gelman (2008)
Gender stereotypes not explicitly taught but affirmed by mothers
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Little Albert
Psychopathology developing after unusual experience, against the biological theory
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Beck (1967)
Model of depression. Negative belief about self, cognitive bias and failures & loss all feedback to each other and lead to depression.
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Coarticulation
Phonemes influenced and become more like, a proceeding or following sound.
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Assimilation
Lazy speech, change where phoneme is in mouth as it falls onto next word
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The Gangong effect
Ambiguous phoneme into a sentence, hear the likely word e.g., kiss not hiss
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The Phoneme Restoration Effect
Cough in the sentance over a phoneme, brain automatically fills in. Will not register the cough or know where it happened.
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Segmentation Problem
No gaps in spoken words
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Lexical Ambiguity
84% of words have multiple meanings
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Syntactic Ambiguity
Sentences have different meanings "they are flying planes"
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Language Acquisition
Foetus = Rhythm and Melody. 10 months = Phonemes of own language. 12 months - 100 words, concrete nouns.
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Cherole Languages
Support for poverty of input argument. Innate want to express world in complex terms
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Broca's Aphasia
Poor speech production, damage to the posterior inferior left temporal lobe
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Wernike's Aphasia
Poor speech comprehension, damage to the area opposite the primary auditory cortex
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Lichem's House Model
Set of structures interconnected, states where lesions could occur and problems that would arise
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Rodd (2005)
fMRI studies have confirmed importance of these areas and discovered Broca's area important for speech comprehension too!
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MEG
Magneto-encephal-o-graphy
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EEG
Electro-encephal-o-graphy
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PET
Position Emission Tomography
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fMRI
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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Maguire
Taxi driver study, importance of hipocampus in spacial learning
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Williams (2007)
Same activation in ostracism as in physical hurt
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Invivo Calcium Imaging
Show ca2+ status of cells, flourescent markers
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Broadbent (1954)
Speech shadowing task. Recall just physical characteristics of the unattended message. Early, late or attenuation selection?
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Pineas Gage
Damage to the prefrontal cortex
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Stroop task and Wiscosin test
Standard tests for dysexucutive syndrome
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Shallice and Burgess (1991)
Multipal Errands Test. Dysexucutive syndrome patients in a shopping mall
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Patient HM
Removes MTL, including amygdala, anterior hippocampus and peripheral cortex
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Standard Consolidation Theory
MTL for storage and retrieval, linked by hippocampus until no longer needed. Hence why old memories there but no formation of new!
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Patient KC
Bilateral hippocampal lesion, severe anterograde amnesia. Can't imagine past or future
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Bechara (1991)
No amygdala = no conditioning, no hippocampus = no learning facts
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Stading (1973)
10,000 images, large capacity. Contains details and the state of objects
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Leiberman (2001)
Picture study, asked to rank. Had to choose between two to take home, rank again. Put choice higher ranking and one not chosen lower. Shown in amnesiac patients
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Card 2

Front

BST twice as big in males and this correlates with gender identity

Back

Zouh (1995)

Card 3

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Erotic becomes exotic, environmental influence on sexual orientation

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

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Mild/moderate effect of genes on orientation. MZ males = 20% DZ = 0%

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Physiological anger vs fear. Participants insulted or shocked and heart rate/skin conductivity ect. measured. Anger and fear are physiologically different. Support for James Lang Theory and two factor theory

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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