Computing

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  • Created by: apple87
  • Created on: 09-06-14 11:15
What is data?
Can consist of facts or statistics out of context and used for analysis.
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What is information?
Can be a sentence or sequence of numbers that have been put into context, and gives the data meaning.
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What is a variable?
Data which can be changed
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What is a constant?
Data which can not be changed
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What do you need to consider when naming variables?
Can't be a single number. Can be a single letter. Can't have spaces. Can't use words that the programme has reserved for its self.
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What is a primitive data type?
Predefined data types which ar supported by the programming language.
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What is an integer?
A whole numbers only includes positve and negative numbers
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What is a real data type, and when is it used?
Decimal numbers- used when more accurate information is requiered.
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What is a date/time data type?
Stores the date or time
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What is a string?
Text
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What is a boolean?
represents true/false or yes/no
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What does the boolean operator 'and' do?
True if and only if both sides are true
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What does the boolean operator 'or' do?
True is either side is true
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What does the boolean operator 'not' do?
Changes true to false and false to true.
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What is a data structure?
When data is organising data so it is suitable for computer processing.
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What is a one dimensional array?
Structured selection of components that can be accessed individually with a single index code.
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What is a list?
Each of the elements can be accessed by an index
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What is a two dimensional array?
Data is accessed by two indexes. The first represents a row the second a colomn.
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What is program flow control?
The order in which a programme is executed
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In a flow chart what do each of the symbols mean?
Oval= start/end, Square=Process, Diamond=decision
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What is a do while loop
continue to loop until the condition is false
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What is a procedure?
A block of code that performs a task without returning a value
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What is a function?
It returns a value
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What is a user defined funtion?
Created by the user
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What is a built in function?
Part of the programming language
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Where are built in functions stored?
Libary files
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What is a parameter?
Allows the passing of values to the procedure or function for use inside it.
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What is a syntax error?
When the programmer uses the wrong grammer rules of the program
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What is a run time error?
When the program instructs the computer to carry out an operation that it is not designed to do or is to slow to do.
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What is a logic error?
When the program runs but it still produces incorrect results.
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What is dry run testing?
Usually carried out bofore the code has been written
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What is testing for errors while the code is running called?
Debugging
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What two things are needed to debug code effectively?
The abilty to test each of the instructions. The capability to retrive information about the results, any changes in the programe, error conditions, what the program was doing when an error happened.
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What are trace tables?
Used to test algorithms to see if any logic error occur.
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What does SQL stand for?
Structured query language.
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What five things does a computer system need?
Processor, input, output, storage, control
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What two type of hardware are there?
System harware like the CPU. Other hardware like the hard disk, RAM, optical drive, sound and graphics card, circuit boards.
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What are the differences between mobile CPU processors?
They have a lower clock speed which lowers the amount of heat. Requires a processor that does not creat to much heat. Small space mean other components are often incorporated into the CPU. Optimised for low power consumption
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What four things do PU's do?
1)Fetch instructions. 2) Decode instructions. 3) Execute instructions. 4) Store results.
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What does the motherboard do?
Links the CPU to the PUs to the memory and other hardware.
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What is a bus?
The circuit that connects one part of the motherboard to the other.
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What two compnents does a graphics card have?
Video chip set that sends signals to the screen. RAM, has to remember the whole screen
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What is volotile memory?
Requires a power supply to maintain stored data.
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What is non-volotile memory?
Retains data when the power supply is on or off
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Describe the waterfall model?
Specification requirments, Design, Implementation, Testing, Evolution or mantinence.
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What are the advantages of the waterfall model?
Simple and easy, Easy to manage, each phase is done one at a time, good for smaller projects.
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What are the disadvantages of the waterfall model?
Lack of felexibility, no working software is produced until late in the cycle, high amounts of risk and uncertianty.
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Describe the incremental model?
More than one development cycle, divided into smaller and more easily managed sections, working software is produced in the first build.
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What are the advantages of the Incremental model?
Produces working software quickly and early on, more flexible, less costly to change, easier to test
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What are the disadvantages of the incremental model?
Each phase is rigid, problems could arise because not all the requirments being gathered for the entire cycle.
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What are the four phases of the spiral model?
Planning, risk analysis, engineering, evaluation
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What are the different phases of the spiral model?
Spesification requirments, Preliminary design, Detail design, coding, mode test, system test,
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What are the advantages of the spiral model?
High degree of risk analysis, good for large projects, software is produced early on.
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What are the disadvantages of the spiral model?
Costly to adopt, risk analysis requires high experties, success is highly dependent on risk analysis phase.
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Describe the V-Shaped model.
Fllows a sequence of phases like the waterfall method.
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What are the advantages of the V-shaped model?
Simple and easy to use, each phase is specific, high chance of success, works well fo small projects.
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What are the disadvantages of the v-shaed model?
very rigid,, little felxibility, change is expensive, no early prototypes are produced, doesnt' follow a clear path.
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What are the different stages of the v-shapes model?
Specification requirements and operational testing. High level design and intergration testing. Detailed specification and unit testing. Implementation
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What are the the advantages of prototyping?
Allows customer to compare different designs, Can offer improvments, less wasted time, user feedback and involvment, enables detailed examination
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What are the disadvantages of prototyping?
Developer can beecome distracted, limited functionality, user can think the prototype is the final system, user can become attached to the prototype, lots of effor can be spent, expensive
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What is the design stage?
Details on how the software will work are created. Flowcharts are oftne created
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What is the implemntation stage?
Code is written, usually the longest phase- possibilty it will overlay with design phase.
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What is the testing stage?
Program is tested against the specification. Certain areas are tested.
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What is the evolution stage?
Upgrades or changes are made
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What are the basic components of a network?
Servers, clients, communication media, network adapter, user, protocols.
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What is a network adapter?
Circuit board with all the components plugged into it
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What is the protocol?
Formal written rules for network communications. The language computer use to communicate on a network
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What are the advantages of the bus topology?
Easy and cheap to install, small amounts of cables.Suitable for small networks.
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What are the disadvantages of bus topology?
Cable length is limited, performance is weakened due to data collisions
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What are the advantages of ring topology?
Centeral server is not required
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What are the disadvantages of ring topology?
Failure in the cable causes entire network to crash, alteration affect the performance of whole network.
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What are the advantages of star topology?
Operational simplicity. Changes to one device does not affect other.
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What are the disadvantages of star topology?
If the hub crashed the whole network goes down. More wires needed.
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Card 2

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What is information?

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Can be a sentence or sequence of numbers that have been put into context, and gives the data meaning.

Card 3

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What is a variable?

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Card 4

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What is a constant?

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Card 5

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What do you need to consider when naming variables?

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