# Computing

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Algorithm

a description, independent of any programming language of a process that achieves some task/a step by step procedure for solving a problem

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Program

A description in a programming language of a process that achieves some useful result

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Assignment

An operation that assigns a value to a variable

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Structured English

A very restricted subset of the English Language

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Pseudocode

Code that resembles a programming language but uses less strict syntax to express and algorithm

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Hand trace, Desk check, Dry run

A step by step simulation on paper of how an algorithm would be executed by a computer

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Global variable

A variable declared at the beginning of a program and is accessible from anywhere in the program

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Local variable

A variable that is declared in a program block and accessible only within that program block

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Constant

A value that does not change throughout the program

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Integer

A whole number

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Real number

(Opposite of an integer) A number with a fractional/decimal part

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String

A sequence of characters

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Record

A data structure that groups a number of variables

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Field

A variable that is part of a record

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Enumerated type

An ordered set of values

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Ordinal type

An ordered set of values such as integer, character, Boolean, and enumerated types

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Set

a collection of values of the same ordinal type with no associated order

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Boolean operaters

AND, OR, NOT

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Function

A routine that is called as part of an expression and returns a value

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Procedure

A routine that may or may not return a value

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Two's complement

A system for representing negative numbers

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Gray Code

A number system that changes one bit at a time to avoid mistakes

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Hamming Code

A number system that can self correct single errors using a few parity bits in a bit pattern (using EVEN parity)

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ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange- a characters system used to represent 128 characters. It uses 7 bits, the 8th is a parity bit used to error check

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Compilation error

When a program doesn't compile due to SYNTAX or LEXICAL errors

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Run time error

When the program crashes or gets stuck in a loop

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Logic error

When the programmer has made a mistake and the program output is wrong

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Computation

The act or process of calculating or determining something by mathematical, logical or interactive methods

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Computability

Measures what can and cannot be computed

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Computing

The study of natural and artificial information processes

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Nanocomputing

Molecular-scale computing nanites and nanobots

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DNA computing

Using strands of DNA to perform computations that would take too long by conventional computers

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Artificial intelligence

A branch of computing that studies the use of computers to perform computational processes normally associated with the human intellect

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Deterministically

Without guessing a solution before confirming it

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Nature-inspired computing

Emergent complex behaviour generated from simpler interactions between autonomous agents, cellular automata, fractals.

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Quantum computing

Using the quantum states of atoms to perform computations and solve problems that would take too long by a conventional computer

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Type Check

The data entered must be a certain type

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Format check

The format of the data entered must meet the one defined in the rule

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Range check

Values entered must be within a certain range

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Length check

The data entered must be a certain length

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Lookup check

Using a predfined list to enter values

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Presence check

Checks that there is data present and that it has not been left blank

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Check digit

Like in hamming code, a check digit is a digit calculated from another digit- a parity bit used for error checking

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Fixed value variable

A variable that is initialised without calculation and not changed thereafter

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Stepper

A variable stepping through a systematic succession of values, during iterations (‘for row in’, ‘i’, ‘loop’)

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Most recent holder

Holding latest values when processing a succession of predictable values or the latest value obtained as an input

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Most wanted holder

A variable holding the most appropriate value encountered so far e.g. search for the largest value in a set of values. The most wanted holds the largest value encountered so far.

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Gatherer

A variable accumulating the effect of individual values e.g. when the program calculates a running total the gatherer is a total of all the values that have been added so far.

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Transformation

A variable that always gets its new value from a fixed calculation of values of other variables

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Follower

A variable that gets its new value from the old value of some other data item

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Temporary

A variable holding some value for a short time only e.g. when swapping values in variables

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Text file

A sequence of printable characters, organised line by line, it can be opened and read in a text editor

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CSV file

Comma-seperated values file, a text file with one record per line and the fields of each record seperated by commas

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Binary file

Contains mostly unprintable characters

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

A description in a programming language of a process that achieves some useful result

#### Back

Program

### Card 3

#### Front

An operation that assigns a value to a variable

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

A very restricted subset of the English Language

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

Code that resembles a programming language but uses less strict syntax to express and algorithm

#### Back

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