# Computing

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• Created by: Emily
• Created on: 05-12-13 14:44
Algorithm
a description, independent of any programming language of a process that achieves some task/a step by step procedure for solving a problem
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Program
A description in a programming language of a process that achieves some useful result
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Assignment
An operation that assigns a value to a variable
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Structured English
A very restricted subset of the English Language
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Pseudocode
Code that resembles a programming language but uses less strict syntax to express and algorithm
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Hand trace, Desk check, Dry run
A step by step simulation on paper of how an algorithm would be executed by a computer
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Global variable
A variable declared at the beginning of a program and is accessible from anywhere in the program
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Local variable
A variable that is declared in a program block and accessible only within that program block
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Constant
A value that does not change throughout the program
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Integer
A whole number
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Real number
(Opposite of an integer) A number with a fractional/decimal part
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String
A sequence of characters
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Record
A data structure that groups a number of variables
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Field
A variable that is part of a record
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Enumerated type
An ordered set of values
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Ordinal type
An ordered set of values such as integer, character, Boolean, and enumerated types
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Set
a collection of values of the same ordinal type with no associated order
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Boolean operaters
AND, OR, NOT
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Function
A routine that is called as part of an expression and returns a value
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Procedure
A routine that may or may not return a value
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Two's complement
A system for representing negative numbers
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Gray Code
A number system that changes one bit at a time to avoid mistakes
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Hamming Code
A number system that can self correct single errors using a few parity bits in a bit pattern (using EVEN parity)
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ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange- a characters system used to represent 128 characters. It uses 7 bits, the 8th is a parity bit used to error check
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Compilation error
When a program doesn't compile due to SYNTAX or LEXICAL errors
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Run time error
When the program crashes or gets stuck in a loop
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Logic error
When the programmer has made a mistake and the program output is wrong
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Computation
The act or process of calculating or determining something by mathematical, logical or interactive methods
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Computability
Measures what can and cannot be computed
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Computing
The study of natural and artificial information processes
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Nanocomputing
Molecular-scale computing nanites and nanobots
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DNA computing
Using strands of DNA to perform computations that would take too long by conventional computers
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Artificial intelligence
A branch of computing that studies the use of computers to perform computational processes normally associated with the human intellect
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Deterministically
Without guessing a solution before confirming it
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Nature-inspired computing
Emergent complex behaviour generated from simpler interactions between autonomous agents, cellular automata, fractals.
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Quantum computing
Using the quantum states of atoms to perform computations and solve problems that would take too long by a conventional computer
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Type Check
The data entered must be a certain type
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Format check
The format of the data entered must meet the one defined in the rule
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Range check
Values entered must be within a certain range
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Length check
The data entered must be a certain length
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Lookup check
Using a predfined list to enter values
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Presence check
Checks that there is data present and that it has not been left blank
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Check digit
Like in hamming code, a check digit is a digit calculated from another digit- a parity bit used for error checking
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Fixed value variable
A variable that is initialised without calculation and not changed thereafter
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Stepper
A variable stepping through a systematic succession of values, during iterations (‘for row in’, ‘i’, ‘loop’)
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Most recent holder
Holding latest values when processing a succession of predictable values or the latest value obtained as an input
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Most wanted holder
A variable holding the most appropriate value encountered so far e.g. search for the largest value in a set of values. The most wanted holds the largest value encountered so far.
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Gatherer
A variable accumulating the effect of individual values e.g. when the program calculates a running total the gatherer is a total of all the values that have been added so far.
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Transformation
A variable that always gets its new value from a fixed calculation of values of other variables
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Follower
A variable that gets its new value from the old value of some other data item
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Temporary
A variable holding some value for a short time only e.g. when swapping values in variables
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Text file
A sequence of printable characters, organised line by line, it can be opened and read in a text editor
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CSV file
Comma-seperated values file, a text file with one record per line and the fields of each record seperated by commas
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Binary file
Contains mostly unprintable characters
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

A description in a programming language of a process that achieves some useful result

Program

### Card 3

#### Front

An operation that assigns a value to a variable

### Card 4

#### Front

A very restricted subset of the English Language

### Card 5

#### Front

Code that resembles a programming language but uses less strict syntax to express and algorithm