OCR Computing Revision Cards- Chapter one: Computer Systems

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  • Created by: maniamiah
  • Created on: 05-12-15 20:48
What is Hardware?
A hardware is a physical components, such as: keyboards, mouse, hard dish or anything else that can be touched.
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What is a Software?
A software includes both the operating systems and any application software, such as: spreadsheet or presentational software.
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What are input devices?
Input devices are used to put data into the computer, such as: keyboards, mice and webcams.
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What are output devices?
Output devices allow data to be sent beyond the computer, usually to a human user, such as: monitors,speakers and printers.
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What is the CPU?
The CPU stands for Central Processing Unit and is the component which performs calculations and fetches and executes program instructions.
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What is storage devices?
Storage devices are used to contain programs and data, such as: USB flash drives, DVD drives and internal hard disk drives
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What is an embedded system?
An embedded system is a computer integrated into another device, such as: mobile phone, washing machine, petrol pump or television.
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What is the importance of safety?
Computers are least responsible for any critical operations, such as: monitoring and controlling nuclear reactions within nuclear power stations.
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What is the importance of travel?
The ways in which computers help travel vary from satellite navigation to online ticket purchases to autopilots which help fly planes.
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What is the importance of business?
A lot of people depend on computers mainly for business transactions and are increasingly accessing the Internet. It could include moving funds around the world instantly or even transmitting any electronic products, such as: books or music.
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What is the importance of education?
Computers help to communicate and access information from anywhere as well as to administer and mark tests. They are very important in maintaining information on students, i.e: grades, attendance and punctuality.
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What is the importance of retail?
Computers connected to barcode scanners and scales can make shopping faster and contribute to self-service tills. Also, they keep track of stock, often re-ordering automatically whenever needed.
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What is the importance of entertainment?
They are hand-held and desktop devices allow users to play games, read books, watch movies and listen to music, all electronically.
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What is professional standards?
They are essentially rules which everyone follows in developing computer systems, rather than everyone doing their own thing. An example of this could be USB ports and cables , many manufactures produce them separately, but produce to same spec.
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List three things professional standards allow programmers to do?
- Modify someone else's program , move to a different company without re-learning these standards , work in teams on the same program at the same time
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There are four categories which fall into professional standards
The professional standards are: open, proprietary, industry and de facto
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Open standards
They are publicly available and flexible. Example of this is that how anyone can create web resources which adhere to W3C standards and would not have to pay.
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Proprietary standards
They are defined by a particular company, usually a large company to dominate the market. Example of this is software which is compatible with a specific operating system.
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Industry standards
They are formally defined sets of standards which specify how hardware or software from different developers interacts. Example of this is USB (Universal Serial Bus)
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De facto standards
They evolve from what happens to work well and they emerge from practice, rather than being formally defined. Example of this happening is the QWERTY keyboard layout and which happens to become the norm over time.
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What are the three main considerations?
There are ethical, environmental and legal considerations.
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Ethical
Whether something is right or wrong, i.e: Would it be ethical for a government to store an electronic profile of the DNA of its entire population, of criminals, immigrants?
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Legal
There are four laws which come into this and they are: Computer Misuse Act, Data Protection Act, Copyrights, Designs and Patents Act and Health and Safety at Work Act.
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What are computer Misuse Act?
This makes hacking illegal and hacking is gaining access to computer material which are not allowed to have access to even stealing a password.
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What is the Data Protection Act?
It is keeping any personal data secure and confidential.
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What is Copyrights, Designs and Patents Act?
It is illegal to make a copy of any publication without the permission of the copyright owner.
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What is the Health and Safety at Work Act?
This law makes employees responsible for the safety of their work, for example: trailing cables which are trip hazards or a poorly positioned chair which could cause back problems.
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Environmental
There are negatives and benefits of environmental impacts.
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Negatives
Computers require energy to run, which may mean the burning of fossil fuels and old computers are not easy to dispose of and are not always recyclable.
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Benefits
Communications sent electronically does not waste paper or ink and people who work from home do not have to burn fossil fuels driving to work.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a Software?

Back

A software includes both the operating systems and any application software, such as: spreadsheet or presentational software.

Card 3

Front

What are input devices?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are output devices?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the CPU?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

maniamiah

Here are a set of flash cards for my computing revision

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