# Computing: Representing Data

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- Created by: kaliSerene
- Created on: 22-04-16 09:39

What number system do modern computers work in?

Binary

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What is binary?

A number system with just two symbols: 0 and 1

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What is binary made up of?

Data and instructions

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What is each digit in binary called?

A bit Binary digIT

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What is a kilobyte?

1024 bytes

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What is a terabyte?

1024 gigabytes

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What is a byte?

8 bits

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What is a gigabyte?

1024 megabytes

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What is a nibble?

4 bits

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What is a megabyte?

1024 kilobytes

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If you were adding a binary number and a column had 1 and 1, what would be the answer?

Write 0 and carry 1

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If you were adding a binary number and a column had 1 and 0, what would be the answer?

Write 1 and carry 0

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If you were adding a binary number and a column had 0 and 0, what would be the answer?

Write 0 and carry 0

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All the symbols displayed by a computer are represented by a code. What does a computer do when it wants a symbol to be displayed?

The computer looks up the symbol matching the code from a list of codes and their associated characters. The list of codes and matching characters is the character set for the computer.

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What are the codes used stored in?

Binary

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What determines how many characters or symbols can be used?

The number of bits used to store the code

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What does ASCII use?

7 bits, 127 characters or symbols plus the null character (128 in total)

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What does Extended ASCII use?

8 bits, 256 characters or symbols

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What is Unicode?

Can provide a character set for a computer that includes a wide range of specialist symbols. ASCII could be considered a subset of Unicode as Unicode keeps the original 127 ASCII codes.

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What does UNICODE use?

16 bits, 65,000 possibilities or 32 bits providing over 4 billion possibilities

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When we sort words in ASCII, what word would come first: 'zebra' or 'apple'?

Zebra

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On a computer, images are stored as what?

Many binary values

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How is the computer able to work out how to turn these binary values into the image?

The file with the binary data contains metadata (data about the data).

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What is a pixel?

One tiny square of the image.

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What does the number of bits we use for a pixel determine?

How many colours each pixel can represent. 1 bit can represent just two colours, 2 bits can represent 4 colours, 8 bits can represent 256 colours, 16 bits can represent 65,536 colours

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The more bits per pixel (bpp), the...

...greater the colour depth and the more bits we need to store the data.

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What is 16 bpp called?

High colour

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What is 24 bpp called?

True colour

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What does resolution mean?

The number of pixels per unit.

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The more pixels per inch, the...

...more data to be stored and the large file needed to store the image.

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What happens if a bitmapped image is enlarged on the screen?

The image size does not change. The pixels become bigger and the image becomes pixelated or 'blocky'.

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How many colours can be represented using a 4-bit colour depth?

16

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What are the main factors effecting the size of the file needed to store an image?

The resolution, the size and the colour depth.

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What are sound files described by?

Metadata to make sure the computer can interpret the data accurately

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What does the data stored include?

Audio codec, sample rate.

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What needs to be done to sound to get it transferred to a computer?

Needs to be converted from analogue to digital

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What is a sample interval?

Describes the sample rate, the time between samples being taken. The higher the sample interval the lower the sample rate.

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When sound is sampled at a low rate it...

Very few samples are taken. There is a poor match between the original sound and the sampled sound, a small file size is required.

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When sound is sampled at a high rate it...

Many more samples are taken, there is a good match between the original sound and the sampled sound, a large file size is required.

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What is the bit rate?

The amount of space used for each sample.

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What does a higher bit rate mean?

More accurate sampling at each point which gives better quality, more data needs to be stored which needs a larger file size

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What happens when a computer is instructed to run a program?

The computer is directed to a specific location in memory that contains the first instruction in the program.

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The CPU fetches the instruction and decodes it in order to find out what to do next. What is the instruction made up of?

The operator: instruction part, and the operand: data part.

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What is the accumulator?

A special register in the CPU used to store the results of any calculation.

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What can the CPU not tell the difference between?

Data and instructions which simple deals with what it finds according to what it expects to find.

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What is binary?

#### Back

A number system with just two symbols: 0 and 1

### Card 3

#### Front

What is binary made up of?

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

What is each digit in binary called?

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

What is a kilobyte?

#### Back

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