Computing - Representation of Data in Computer Systems

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Denary
A system of numbers using 10 digits, 0-9
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Binary
A system of numbers using two digits, 1 and 0
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Bit
Binary digit 1 or 0
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Byte
8 bits
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Nibble
4 bits/half a byte
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Kilobyte
1024 bytes
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Megabyte
1024 kilobytes
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Gigabyte
1024 megabytes
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Terabyte
1024 gigabytes
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What's the largest number that can be stored in a byte?
255
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Overflow
When a number becomes too large to fit into the number of bits allocated it is said to 'overflow' meaning that some bits are lost and leave an incorrect value
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Hexadecimal
The base-16 number system
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ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. 7-bit system to code the character set of a computer
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Character Set
The characters available to a computer
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Unicode
Up to 32-bit system to code the character set of a computer
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Pixel
The smallest element of an image. They're the dots that make the images on the screen.
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Colour Depth
(or bit depth) The number of bits used for each pixel. The more bits the more colours that can be represented.
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Resolution
The number of pixels per unit (ppi - pixesl per inch - is popular)
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Metadata
Information about the image data that allows the computer to recreate the image from the binary data in the file. Must contain height & width of pixels and the colour depth in bpp (bits per pixel)
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Analogue
Continuously changing values - like sound
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Converting Sound from Analogue to Digital
Sample sound wave at set intervals, record the values, set of values is then saved and replayed by the computer
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Sample Rate
The number of times the sound is sampled per second, measured in Hz. Affects the quality of sound. High sample rate = improved quality but creates larger file.
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Bit rate
The space available for each sample, measured in kilobits per second. High bit rate = better results by needs more storage space
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Address
Location in the main memory used to store data or instructions
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Decode
Instruction is decoded by the CPU into two parts - operator and operand
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Register
Special fast access part of the CPU that stores data in use by CPU
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Program Counter
A register in the CPU that keeps the address of the next instruction
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Operator
Part of the instruction that tells the CPU what to do
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Operand
Part of the instruction that tells the CPU what to apply the operation to
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Accumulator
Register in CPU that stores data currently being used by the CPU
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A system of numbers using two digits, 1 and 0

Back

Binary

Card 3

Front

Binary digit 1 or 0

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

8 bits

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

4 bits/half a byte

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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