Computing: Hardware

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Define the CPU.
Commonly known as the brain of the computer. It is also known as the processor.
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The CPU has two parts. What are they?
The Arithmetic Logic Unit and the Control Unit.
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What does the Arithmetic Logic Unit do?
Performs arithmetic and logical operations such as addition, subtraction and comparing values.
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What does the Control Unit do?
Gets instructions from the memory (RAM), decodes them and executed the instructions.
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How does the clock speed affect the speed of the CPU?
It determines how fast the CPU runs per second in Hertz.
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How does the number of cores affect the speed of the CPU?
The more cores there are, the more instructions the CPU can execute at once. Therefore quicker.
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How does the cache affect the speed of the CPU?
It is recently used data. The CPU looks here first before looking in RAM for the data. This is quicker.
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What are all the gates in the CPU called?
Logic gates
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Shaped like a triangle. What logic gate is this?
The NOT gate
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Shaped like a distorted triangle. What logic gate is this?
The OR gate
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Shaped like a rectangle with a curve on the right side. What logic gate is this?
the AND gate
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What is RAM and what does it stand for?
Random Access Memories are a type of memory that stores impermanent data. It stores what the computer is doing at that moment in time.Any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes.
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What is ROM and what does it stand for?
Read Only Memory is the memory that contains the information and programming to start up the computer. ROM retains its contents even when the computer is switched off
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What are some properties of RAM?
Stored in any random order, volatile, normally large
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What are some properties of ROM?
It is read only, non-volatile, normally small
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What is virtual RAM?
Virtual RAM is a way of using the hard disc to extend the amount of RAM available to the computer. This enables computer systems to act like they have more RAM. This virtual memory is obviously slower than RAM.
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What is cache memory?
Contains recently used data such as commands, programs or websites.
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What is a mouse?
An input device. By moving the mouse on a flat surface can move a cursor on the screen
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What is a keyboard?
Being the most common type of input device, pressing a key creates a letter on the screen while a combination of keystrokes can cause a more complex action.
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What is a magnetic disc?
This is a platter of metal that can be magnetised. The disc spins rapidly and the arm can move across the disc to read or write data.
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What are some advantages of magnetic discs?
Can store large amounts of data cheaply. Can read data quickly.
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What are some disadvantages of magnetic discs?
The moving parts use a lot of power and are sensitive to shocks. They should not be touched/moved while in use. If dropped, there is a possibility of all data being destroyed.
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What is an optical disc?
These use lasers to read from an optical disc such as a CD, DVD or Blue-ray disc. Many optical discs are read only.
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What are the advantages of an optical disc?
It is cheap. It can be used to create and read multiple discs. Easily distributed and most people have disc readers.
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What are the disadvantages of an optical disc?
Mostly read only and sometimes re-write. If it is a re-write disc, it can only be rewritten a limited number of times. It is slow to read data.
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What is solid state?
These are erasable ROM chips that can be wiped and writeen to electroniucally, but when the power is off they retain the data stored on them.
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What are the advantages of solid state?
There are no moving parts, it is low-powered, accessed and saved very quickly.
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What are the disadvantages of solid state?
They are expensive compared with other forms of storage. Smaller storage capacity when compared.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The CPU has two parts. What are they?

Back

The Arithmetic Logic Unit and the Control Unit.

Card 3

Front

What does the Arithmetic Logic Unit do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the Control Unit do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does the clock speed affect the speed of the CPU?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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