Computing - Computing Hardware

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The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Accesses primary storage. Runs fetch-execute. Decode and execute instructions. Perform arithmetic operations.
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Cache Memory
Fast memory located very close to the main CPU. Relatively expensive compared with the standard RAM. Faster than main memory.
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Clock Chip
Measures speed of boot cycle.
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Clock Speed
Measured in Hertz or cycles per second.
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Motherboard
The central printed circuit board that holds the crucial components of the system
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Bus
Part of the computer that transfers data signals between components
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RAM - Random Access Memory
Main memory. Required for the operating system, applications that are loaded and any data currently in use. Loses all data when power is switched off making if volatile.
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Dynamic RAM
Needs to be refreshed every few milliseconds to maintain charge in the capacitor
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Static RAM
Store data while they have power without being refreshed. Used for cache memory.
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ROM - Read Only Memory
Retain information programmed in by the manufacturer which makes it non-volatile. Stores boot sequence.
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Virtual Memory
The area of the hard disk used for temporary storage of data from the main memory. This slows down computer speed as CPU is moving data around more rather than processing it.
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Flash Memory
Removable memory. Constant writing and re-writing can causes deterioration and failure so limitations are there. Low cost, portable, removable storage. Solid state.
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NOT Gate
If 0 is input then it outputs 1. If 1 is input it outputs 0.
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AND Gate
If both inputs are 1 then it outputs 1, otherwise it outputs 0.
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OR Gate
If one or both of the two inputs are 1 it outputs 1, otherwise 0.
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NOR Gate
Works the opposite of the OR gate
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XNOR Gate
When both inputs are the same, outputs 1, when both inputs are different, outputs 0
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XOR Gate
When both inputs are the same, outputs 0, when both inputs are different, outputs 1
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NAND Gate
Works the opposite of the AND gate
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Keyboard
Input Device. Data entry. Braille keyboards for the blind.
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Mouse
Input device. Invented by Douglas Engelbart in 1963.
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Touch Screen
Input device. Used in tablets, mobiles, kiosks, supermarket checkouts etc. Touch pad is earlier alternative.
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Microphone
Input device. Voice input. Often only recognise numbers or basic words. Voice input used by disabled users.
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Camera
Input device. Image or video input. Facial recognition software. Found on modern personal computer.
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Barcode scanner
Input device. Used to identify items in a database.
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RFID Reader
Input device. Radio frequency identification. The number looked up in a database much like a barcode scanner.
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Sensors
Input device. Temp and water level sensors in washing machines, light, pressure and other sensors also used.
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Input Devices for Specific Needs
Eye typer - limited physical mobility. Puff-**** - severely limited physical mobility. Voice input. Joystick - requires less movement than mouse. Foot mouse - limited hand movement. Braille keyboard.
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Monitor
Visual message, text, images, video all appear on a monitor. LCD and LED types are most common.
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Printer
Creates hard copy evidence. Variety of types - monochrome, colour laser printers, ink-jet, 3D.
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Speakers
Music and all sound come through built in speakers or headphones. Visually impaired user relies on this. Also used for warnings in hospita
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Actuators
Computer controlled device that can make mechanical adjustments to a system. Used in aeroplane control systems
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Output Devices for Specific Needs
Screen readers - for visual impairments like magnification software, Actuators - physical movement in response to a computer command for those with limited mobility. Voice synthesisers - unable to communicate verbally
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Magnetic Hard Disk
Most widely used second storage device. Reliable, cost effective. Stores operating system, installed apps and users' data.
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Optical Disks
CD and DVD. Used to distribute programs, video or data that is read only. Use light from lasers to detect reflections from the surface of the data area. Inexpensive and robust.
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Flash memory (solid state)
Often uses a USB connection. Much better access times than magnetic disks, no moving parts, uses less power.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Fast memory located very close to the main CPU. Relatively expensive compared with the standard RAM. Faster than main memory.

Back

Cache Memory

Card 3

Front

Measures speed of boot cycle.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Measured in Hertz or cycles per second.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The central printed circuit board that holds the crucial components of the system

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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