Computing A451

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  • Created by: Georgina
  • Created on: 20-04-16 11:55
Computer System
Hardware and software working together to create a coded solution
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Reliability
How dependable it is to do the job you entrust it with
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CPU
Central Processing Unit; the hardware within a computer system whose purpose is to process data
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Clock Speed
Number of instructions per second completed (or cycles completed)
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Cache Memory
Stores frequently accessed instructions and data, so they can be quickly accessed
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Binary
A base-2 numbering system representing voltage (uses 0 and 1 only)
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Bit
A binary digit
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Nibble
4 bits, half a byte
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Byte
8 bit, 2 nibbles
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Kilobyte
1024 bytes
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Megabyte
1024 kilobytes
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Gigabyte
1024 megabytes
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Terabyte
1024 gigabytes
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RAM
Random Access Memory; quick read and write times; volatile - loses storage when turned off
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ROM
Read Only Memory; pre-recorded data; read only; non-volatile - data is retained when off
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Virtual Memory
Data from RAM that hasn't been accessed recently is sent to be stored temporarily; it has a slower read and write time than RAM and is accessed slower (used when the RAM is full)
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Flash Memory
Non-volatile; solid-state technology (has no moving parts); expected they will replace hard disks
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Secondary Storage
Non-volatile memory
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Optical Storage Technologies
Stored as height - light is shined to detect difference; small capacity; fairly reliable and durable - but can be scratched
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Magnetic Storage Technologies
Electromagnet read and write heads; it is either magnetised (1) or demagnetised (0) - this is controlled by the heads; large capacity; cheap; reliable; not durable or portable
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Solid State Technologies
Non-mechanical flash memory; fast but expensive; circuits with complex logic gates; reliable and durable; small capacity - used as USB drivers
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Capacity
How much data can be stored in the storage device
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Speed
How quickly the data can be read and written
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Portability
Whether you can take the device with you
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Durability
How the device withstands stress/how easily it will break
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Reliability (2)
How much you can trust the device to work each time
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GUI
Graphical User Interface (sometimes called the 'Shell'); for human interaction; replaced command-line; allows user to easily navigate the system; e.g. Apple OS
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Kernel
Program that manages tasks (has complete access to the memory)
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Memory Management
Kernel allows access to memory; prevents programs interfering
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Peripheral Device
Piece of hardware
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Peripheral Management
OS ensures that the peripherals work correctly by using drivers on behalf of the programs
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Multi-tasking
Multiple programs overlapping
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Anti-virus
Detects and eliminates malicious software
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Firewall
Network system that controls and filters incoming and outgoing traffic
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Spyware
Software that gathers and sends information about a host e.g. Trojan
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Spyware Protection
Simply blocks the threat, or tries to eliminate it
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Formatting
Partitioning sections of secondary storage before file storage
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File Transfer
Utility program which allows files to be moved around, copied and deleted by the user
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Defragmentation
Recognising related data so it is accessed quicker
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System Information and Diagnosis
Hardware specification is kept and an be checked to see if they are functioning correctly
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System Cleanup Tools
Speeds up performance by deleting old files
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Automatic Updating
Searches online, finds, downloads and installs software when a new update has been released
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Custom Written Software
Write or commission software for personal use; takes time; can be expensive; no help for anything going wrong
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Off the Shelf Software
Ready-to-buy; aimed at a lot of users; relatively cheap; thoroughly tested; help available e.g. Microsoft Word
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Open Source Software
Source code avaliable for everyone; can be modified; usually free
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Proprietary Software
Commercially avaliable, but with licenses (cannot be modified); expensive but with free updates
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Denary
A base-10 numbering system (0-9 used)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How dependable it is to do the job you entrust it with

Back

Reliability

Card 3

Front

Central Processing Unit; the hardware within a computer system whose purpose is to process data

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Number of instructions per second completed (or cycles completed)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Stores frequently accessed instructions and data, so they can be quickly accessed

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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