Components of Memory

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What is working memory (WM)?
The mechanism for holding in mind (in an active, available state), a small amount of information.
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What type of information is "stored in WM" (3)?
Recently derived from sensory input, recently retrieved from long-term memory, recently generated by ongoing operations.
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What is short-term memory (STM)?
The ability to hold information over short intervals.
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What is short-term storage (STS)?
The hypothesized temporary passive storage component of WM.
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What physiological evidence is there for a separate WM?
Cells in the pre-frontal cortex show sustained activation in delayed-response.
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What is dual-trace theory?
Retrieval after short interval is mediated by a temporary rapidly-changing trace, retrieval after longer interval mediated by a more permanent trace.
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What is single-trace theory?
Trace decays rapidly to start with, then more slowly.
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What does neuropsychology provide evidence for in terms of dissociation (3)?
Dissociation between WM and LTM, procedural LTM and declarative LTM, semantic LTM and episodic LTM.
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What is amnesic syndrome?
Normal WM, but little or no ability to commit new facts/ events to memory permanently.
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What are STM patients?
Those with selective impairments of WM.
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What are conduction aphasics?
Those with very poor immediate repetition skills, but able to learn sequences if presented slowly.
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What is the process of the modal model?
Environment input ---> Sensory registers ---> STS/ temporary WM LTS/ permanent memory store.
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What has the modal model been replace by?
The idea of multicomponent memory.
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What are the components of LTS (3)?
Procedural vs declarative, semantic vs episodic, material-specific representations.
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What are the components of WM (4)?
"Phonological buffer" and rehearsal loop, "visuo-spatial scratch pad" (VSTM), representation of linguistic structure and meaning, procedural "rules" for current task.
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What is procedural memory?
Often unconscious memory of processes and how to do things.
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What is declarative memory?
Memory of facts and events that can be "declared."
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What is anterograde amnesia?
An impaired ability to form new memories (episodic and declarative), but patients exhibit normal learning rates of perceptual skills and problem solving.
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How can brain damage patients provide evidence for double dissociation?
Brain damage can cause deficits in procedural memory, without impairing declarative memory.
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What is episodic memory?
Memory for individual autobiographical experiences.
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What is semantic memory?
General and conceptual knowledge independent of personal experience.
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What is semantic dementia?
A progressive loss of knowledge about the world, but generally well preserved episodic memory, both across lifespan and for recent events.
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What is the purpose of multiple visual cortex maps?
They are used for different features in the present visual field, such as shape, colour, orientation etc.
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What is sensory memory in relation to the visual field?
When a sensory activity persist beyond the stimulus offset, unless overwritten by a new image.
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What causes the creation of "object files" in the visual WM?
While the image remains available in the sensory memory, features bind by focal attention.
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What process allows for spatially guided movements?
Visual/ auditory/ tactile input ---> Visuo-spatial scratch-pad ---> Various operations and LTM ---> Visuo-spatial scratch-pad ---> Spatially guided movements.
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What process allows for speech output?
Speech input ---> Phonological buffer ---> Various operations and LTM ---> Phonological buffer ---> Speech output.
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Can speech input/ output use the visuo-spatial scratch pad?
Yes, if the speech input allows the information to be temporarily stored in a visualisable way. This provides extra capacity.
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What is the connection between actual visual activation and imagined visual activation?
fMRI studies show an overlap between brain regions activated by these two processes. Visual imagery is experience as quasi-seeing.
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Card 2

Front

What type of information is "stored in WM" (3)?

Back

Recently derived from sensory input, recently retrieved from long-term memory, recently generated by ongoing operations.

Card 3

Front

What is short-term memory (STM)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is short-term storage (STS)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What physiological evidence is there for a separate WM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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