components of a computer system

What is the purpose of a computer?
To take data, process it, then output it.
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What is hardware?
Physical stuff that makes up a computer
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What is software?
Programs and applications that a computer system runs
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What is an embedded system?
Computer built into other devices, they are usually dedicated system.
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Name 3 examples of an embedded system
Dishwasher. Microwave. TV
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What does the CPU do?
It processes all of the data and instructions that make the system work
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Name the 3 main parts in the CPU
The control unit (CU). The arithmetic logic unit (ALU). The cache
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What does the control unit do?
To execute program instructions using the fetch-decode-execute cycle
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What does the arithmetic logic unit do?
It does all calculations
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What is cache?
The cache is very fast memory in the CPU
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What is random access memory (RAM)?
The main memory in a computer. It can be read and written to. It is volatile (It requires power to retain its data)
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What happens when the random access memory (RAM) is full?
Data is then stored in secondary storage know as virtual memory
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What is read only memory (ROM)?
ROM is permanent memory (non-volatile). It can only be read
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Define clock speed
the number of instructions a single processor core can carry out per second (Hz)
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What is a graphic processing unit (GPU)?
Specialised circuits for handling graphics and images
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What are the 3 tiers of storage?
Primary storage. Secondary storage. Tertiary storage
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What is primary storage?
memory areas the CPU can access quickly
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What is secondary storage?
Where all data is stored when not in use
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What is tertiary storage
Where long term data is stored
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What are hard disk drives (HDD), and what are they made up of?
HDDs are traditional internal storage that is made up of a stack of magnetised metal disks
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What are solid state drives (SSD)?
Fast and reliable secondary storage with no moving parts
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What are optical discs?
Robust secondary storage (CDs/DVDs)
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What does the operating system (OS) do?
It communicates with internal and external hardware, provide a user interface, provides platforms for different applications to run and allows the computer to multitask
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What does the operating system (OS) use to communicate with hardware
Device driver software
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What is a back-up?
A copy of a computer system's files and settings stored externally
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What does compression software do?
Reduces file size so it takes up less storage
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What is encryption software?
Software the scrambles (encrypts) data to stop third parties from accessing it
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What is open source software?
Software where the source code is made freely available so it can legally be modified by users
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What is proprietary software?
Software where only the complied code is released so the source code cannot be edited by users
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is hardware?

Back

Physical stuff that makes up a computer

Card 3

Front

What is software?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an embedded system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name 3 examples of an embedded system

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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