Component 1 - Issues of Good and Evil

Morality -
Principals and standards determining which actions are right or wrong
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How are Decisions made (4) -
Morality / Free will / Past experiences / Religious beliefs
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Absolute Morality -
A moral belief that is applied to all situations and circumstances / E.g 'Do not kill' Applied to all circumstances
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Relative Morality -
A moral belief that changes to suit a specific circumstance or situation / E.g Is murder always wrong - Death Penalty
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Advantages of Absolute Morality -
People need clear guidelines / Law can't be changed to suit some people / Prevents relativists disagreeing / Nobody knows 'where to draw the line' with relative morality
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Advantages of Relative Morality -
Allows for different viewpoints and beliefs / Prohibits a dominant culture / Accommodates diversity / Takes into account the circumstances of people
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Crime -
An act which is deemed immoral or punishable by the law
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Sin -
An immoral action against religious laws and beliefs
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Christian Views on Morality -
Original sin is in everyone / Sin separates us from God / All humans can strive to do good but still have sin
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Muslim Views on Morality -
Good actions are made to seem attractive / Everyone has free will / People use their conscience to make their decisions
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Causes of Crime -
Lack of empathy / Family issues / Mental issues / Greed / Anger / Revenge / Abusive childhood / Peer pressure / Poverty / Influence of Drugs or alcohol
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Punishment -
A penalty given to people for a crime or the wrong they have done
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Aims Of Punishment (6) -
Protection / Retribution / Deterrence / Reformation / Vindication / Reparation
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Aims Of Punishment - Protection
Offenders are removed from society so are unable to burden other people in society
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Aims Of Punishment - Retribution
A criminal should suffer as they have made others suffer / 'Getting Even' with the criminal
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Aims Of Punishment - Deterrence
To put other members of society off committing certain crimes
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Aims Of Punishment - Reformation
To attempt to fix and resolve the issue caused by the crime
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Aims Of Punishment - Vindication
Punishment exists to prove and maintain the authority of the law and government
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Aims Of Punishment - Reparation
Repairing the damage that was done by the criminal
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Utilitarianism -
A good action which maximises the greatest good effect for the greatest possible number of people
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Conscience -
A inner sense and instinct which keeps a person on the right moral path
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Justice -
Fairness - Everyone has equal rights and opportunities
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Restorative Justice -
A system of Justice where a criminal can make amends for their crime by meeting the victim and apologising
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Justice for Christians -
'A just God and saviour' - Bible / Judgment day - God will bring justice / Bible teaches equal treatment / 'Do to others as you would have them do to you'
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Justice for Muslims -
Judgment day - God will bring justice / Shari'ah law brings justice / Zakat - Justice to the poor / Allah talks about justice in the Qur'an / Justice is one of Allahs 99 names
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Beatitudes -
The blessings listed by Jesus on the sermon on the mount
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Predestination -
The belief that all events have been willed by Allah
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Parole officer -
A person who supports prisoners on their release from prison into the community
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Humane -
Showing kindness or compassion
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Reformer -
Someone who lobbies and pressurises for change
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Quaker -
A Christian denomination with the central belief that we are all made in the image of God
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Elizabeth Fry - Prison reforms
She was a Quaker / Helped provide education for women in prisons / Campaigned for better conditions in prisons
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Capital Punishment
A Death penalty for a crime or offence
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Arguments for the Death Penalty -
Good deterrence / Criminal can't re-offend / Person loses the right to live / Retribution / Provides victim with closure
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Arguments against the Death Penalty -
Not necessarily a deterrence / Everyone has a right to life / Human justice can make mistakes /Promotes vengeance / Makes the criminal a martyr / Links law with murder
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Christian Views on The Death Penalty -
Liberal Christians - Only God can take a life / 10 commandments / Jesus promotes forgiveness / ...'They know not what they do' / Quakers - against it / Conservative Christians 'Whoever sheds the blood of man , by man shall his blood be shed'
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Muslim Views on The Death Penalty -
A severe but accepted punishment / Forgiveness prefered / Punishment - Central to Justice / Allowed in Shari'ah law / 'Nor take a life... Except for a just cause'
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Forgiveness -
To Grant a Pardon for a wrongdoing and give up resentment
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Christian attitudes to Forgiveness -
Jesus taught to forgive / 'Forgive and you will be forgiven' / In the Lord's Prayer / Prodigal son / Catholics go to confession
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Muslim attitudes to Forgiveness -
Path to peace / No limit to God's forgiveness / Muhammad set a forgiving example / Allah is called forgiving
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Good -
That which is considered morally 'Right'
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Evil -
That which is considered extremely immoral
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Moral Evil -
A result of human actions
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Natural Evil -
Not a result of human actions
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Suffering -
Pain or distress caused by evil, loss, illness, pain etc
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Christian Views on 'Good' -
God made the Earth - 'It was Good' / Free will - chose good or evil / The fall - lack of good / 10 commandments are good / Jesus was good
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Muslim Views in 'Good' -
Fitrah - Instinct of good and bad / Free will - chose good or bad / Muhammad was good / Sadaqah - Voluntary charity / Good deeds = rewards
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Christian attitudes to Evil and Suffering -
Evil - soul making / Original sin / Life is a test / Story of Job - beyond our understanding / Help understand Jesus / Absence of Good / Part of Gods plan
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Muslim attitudes to Evil and Suffering -
Al Qadr - Allah's will / Life is a test / Prove faith by resisting temptation / Good can come from suffering / Muslims should follow Muhammad's example / Evil comes from Shaytan
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Augustine's Theodicy -
Evil entered the world because of original sin / Humans received evil from A + E / God sent Jesus to forgive sin / Evil exists as people accept or reject Jesus
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Irenaeus' Theodicy -
Evil is necessary for developing souls / Evil helps develop virtues / Humans response to God helps them grow closer to God and work on virtues such as charity, generosity and courage
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Hick's Development -
Humans have potential spiritual growth / We are born with epistemic (Knowledge) distance between us and God / Evil helps to perfect humans
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Prison Chaplains -
Provide counselling to inmates / Offer support through rehabilitation process / Help with Spiritual needs / Help with fear, loneliness, guilt and concerns over family
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The Inconsistent Triad -
Can God be Omnibenevolent, Omnipotent and evil still exists?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Morality / Free will / Past experiences / Religious beliefs

Back

How are Decisions made (4) -

Card 3

Front

A moral belief that is applied to all situations and circumstances / E.g 'Do not kill' Applied to all circumstances

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A moral belief that changes to suit a specific circumstance or situation / E.g Is murder always wrong - Death Penalty

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

People need clear guidelines / Law can't be changed to suit some people / Prevents relativists disagreeing / Nobody knows 'where to draw the line' with relative morality

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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