Communication

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Define stimulus and response
Any change in the environment which causes a response; A change in behaviour or physiology as a result of a change in the environment
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What four specific conditions do enzymes need to work efficiently?
- suitable temperature - suitable pH - aqueous environment that keeps substrates and products in solution - freedom from toxins and excess inhibitors
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Metabolic activities of cells alter their own environment producing what toxic product? What happens if this builds up?
- carbon dioxide - could disrupt the action of enzymes by changing the pH of the environment outside the cell
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How is the internal environment of the cells maintained when waste or toxins are produced?
Wastes or toxins in tissue fluid are likely to enter blood and be carried away. To prevent accumulation they must be excreted
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Why is it important that the concentration of wastes and all substances in the blood are monitored closely?
Ensures the body doesn't excrete too much of any useful substances but removes enough waste to be in good health and all the cells of the body are supplied with the substrates they need
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What are the 5 factors that make a good communication system?
- covers the whole body - enables cells to communicate with each other - enables specific communication - enables rapid communication - enables both short and long-term responses
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What is cell signalling?
A process in which one cell will release a chemical that is detected by another cell. The second cell will respond to the signal released by the first cell
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What are the two major systems of communication that work by cell signalling? Quick/slow? Long/short?
-neuronal system; neurons signal across synapses. Quick response but short lasting - hormonal system; hormone carried in blood from endocrine gland. Slow response but longer lasting
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Card 2

Front

What four specific conditions do enzymes need to work efficiently?

Back

- suitable temperature - suitable pH - aqueous environment that keeps substrates and products in solution - freedom from toxins and excess inhibitors

Card 3

Front

Metabolic activities of cells alter their own environment producing what toxic product? What happens if this builds up?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is the internal environment of the cells maintained when waste or toxins are produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is it important that the concentration of wastes and all substances in the blood are monitored closely?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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