Communication and cell signalling test

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 04-04-16 13:42
What must cells have to detect signals?
Receptors on their cell surface membranes which will sense a change/signal.
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What are hormones?
Chemical messengers produced in specific tissue and released into an organism.
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What is a target cell?
Any cell with a receptor for the hormone molecule.
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What does a hormone receptor do?
Binds to a receptor on a target cell surface membrane because the 2 have complementary shapes.
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What does this binding cause?
Causes the target cell to respond in a certain way.
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What medicinal drugs have been developed?
Medicinal drugs that are complementary to a type of receptor molecule.
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What are these drugs intended to do?
Block receptors.
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What is an example of one of these drugs?
Beta-blockers are used to prevent the heart rate from increasing to a dangerous level.
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How does insulin have an effect on the cell?
Insulin is a protein molecule that attaches that attaches to the insulin receptors on the plasma membrane of many cells e.g. muscle cells and liver cells.
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What happens when insulin attaches to its receptor?
It triggers internal responses in muscle cells that lead to more glucose channels being present in the plasma membrane which allows more glucose to be taken up by the cell and reduces blood glucose level.
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How do viruses enter cells?
Enters by binding with receptors on the cell surface membrane that normally bind to the host's signalling molecules.
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Give an example of a virus that enters cells?
HIV virus that enters cells of immune system with a complementary shape to receptor.
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What can also bind to receptors?
Some poisons.
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Give an example of a poison that binds to receptors
The bacterium Clostridium botulinum binds with receptors and causes paralysis (used in Botox).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are hormones?

Back

Chemical messengers produced in specific tissue and released into an organism.

Card 3

Front

What is a target cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does a hormone receptor do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does this binding cause?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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