Communicable diseases

  • Created by: kikaritae
  • Created on: 21-05-18 10:50
chemicals (antibodies) that cause pathogens to clump together so they are easier for phagocytes to engulf and digest.
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antibiotic-resistant bacteria
bacteria that undergo mutation to become resistant to an antibiotic and then survive to increase in number.
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a chemical or compound that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria.
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Y-shaped glycoproteins made by B cells of the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.
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identifying chemical on the surface of a cell that triggers an immune response.
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antigen−antibody complex
the complex formed when an antibody binds to an antigen.
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antigen-presenting cell
a cell that displays foreign antigens complexed with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces.
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chemicals (antibodies) that bind to toxins produced by pathogens so they no longer have an effect.
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autoimmune disease
a condition or illness resulting from an autoimmune response.
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autoimmune response
response when the immune system acts against its own cells and destroys healthy tissue in the body.
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B effector cells
B lymphocytes that divide to form plasma cell clones.
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B lymphocytes
lymphocytes which mature in the bone marrow and that are involved in the production of antibodies.
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B memory cells
B lymphocytes that live a long time and provide immunological memory of the antibody needed against a specific antigen.
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cell signalling
a complex system of intercellular communication
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clonal expansion
the mass proliferation of antibody-producing cells by clonal selection.
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clonal selection
the theory that exposure to a specific antigen selectively stimulates the proliferation of the cell with the appropriate antibody to form numerous clones of these specific antibody-forming cells
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C. difficile
a species of Gram positive bacteria that is resistant to most antibiotics.
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communicable diseases
diseases that can be passed from one organism to another, of the same or different species.
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cell-signalling molecules produced by mast cells in damaged tissues that attract phagocytes to the site of infection or inflammation.
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when a communicable disease spreads rapidly to a lot of people at a local or national level.
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the bulk transport of materials out of cells. Vesicles containing the material fuse with the cell-surface membrane and the contents are released to the outside of the cell.
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Gram negative bacteria
bacteria with cell walls that stain red with Gram stain.
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Gram positive bacteria
bacteria with cell walls that stain purple-blue with Gram stain.
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a structure inside chloroplasts composed of a stack of several thylakoids. Contains chlorophyll pigments, where light reactions occur during photosynthesis.
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chemicals produced by mast cells in damaged tissues that make the blood vessels dilate (causing redness and heat) and the blood vessel walls leaky (causing swelling and pain).
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immune response
a biological response that protects the body by recognising and responding to antigens and by destroying substances carrying non-self antigens.
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Y-shaped glycoproteins that form antibodies.
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biological response of vascular tissues to pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, resulting in pain, heat, redness and swelling.
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a type of cytokine produced by T helper cells.
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mucous membranes
membranous linings of body tracts that secrete a sticky mucus.
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natural active
immunity which results from the response of the body to the invasion of a pathogen.
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natural passive
the immunity given to an infant mammal by the mother through the placenta and the colostrum.
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artificial active
immunity which results from exposure to a safe form of a pathogen, for example, by vaccination.
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artificial passive
immunity which results from the administration of antibodies from another animal against a dangerous pathogen.
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when a communicable disease spreads rapidly to a lot of people across a number of countries.
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microorganisms that cause disease.
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the first widely used, safe antibiotic, derived from a mould
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process by which white blood cells called phagocytes recognise non-self cells, engulf them digest them within a vesicle called a phagolysosome.
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the vesicle in which a pathogen or damaged cell is engulfed by a phagocyte.
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primary immune response
the relatively slow production of a small number of the correct antibodies the first time a pathogen is encountered.
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secondary immune response
the relatively fast production of very large quantities of the correct antibodies the second time a pathogen is encountered as a result of immunological memory − the second stage of a specific immune response.
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specific immunity
also known as active immunity or acquired immunity − the immune system ‘remembers’ an antigen after an initial response leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters.
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T helper cells
T lymphocytes with CD4 receptors on their cell-surface membranes, which bind to antigens on antigen-presenting cells and produce interleukins, a type of cytokine.
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T killer cells
T lymphocytes that destroy pathogens carrying a specific antigen with perforin.
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T lymphocytes
lymphocytes which mature in the thymus gland and that both stimulate the B lymphocytes and directly kill pathogens.
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T memory cells
T lymphocytes that live a long time and are part of the immunological memory.
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T regulator cells
T lymphocytes that suppress and control the immune system, stopping the response once a pathogen has been destroyed and preventing an autoimmune response.
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a safe form of an antigen, which is injected into the bloodstream to provide artificial active immunity against a pathogen bearing the antigen.
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a living or non-living factor that transmits a pathogen from one organism to another, e.g. malaria mosquito.
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antibiotic-resistant bacteria


bacteria that undergo mutation to become resistant to an antibiotic and then survive to increase in number.

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