Combined Science Biology 1

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  • Created by: Lilyk30
  • Created on: 15-04-18 17:52
What subcellular structures do plant and animal cells share in common?
Cell membrane, cytoplasm and genetic material enclosed in a nucleus
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What do plant cells have that animal cells don't?
A cell wall, a permenant vacuole and chloroplasts
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What cells are classed as eukaryotic?
Animal, plant and fungal cells
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What cells are classed as prokaryotic?
Bacterial cells
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What makes bacterial cells different to eukaryotic cells?
They are much smaller in size, the genetic material is not enclosed inside a nucleus and they have no mitochondria or chloroplasts
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What subcellular structures do bacterial cells have?
Cytoplasm, a cell membrane surrounded by a cell wall and a single loop of DNA; one or more small rings of DNA called plasmids
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What does the nucleus do?
Controls the activities of the cell and contains the genetic material
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What does the cytoplasm do?
Where most chemical reactions take place
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What does a cell membrane do?
Controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell
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What does mitochondria do?
Where aerobic respiration takes place
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What does ribosomes do?
Where proteins are synthesised
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What does the cell wall do?
Made of cellulose which strengthens the cell
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What does the permenant vacuole do?
Filled with cell sap which supports the plant
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What do chloroplasts do?
Absorbs light to make food by photosynthesis
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How big is a typical plant cell?
0.1 mm in diameter
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How big is a typical animal cell?
0.02 mm in diameter
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How big is a typical bacterial cell?
0.002 mm long
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How are sperm cells specialised to carry out their function?
Lots of mitochondria for respiration to provide energy; a tail to propel the sperm; the nucleus has only one set of genetic material; have acrosomes which are enzymes that break down the outer layer of the egg
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How are nerve cells specialised to carry out their function?
The sheath acts as an insulator; Neurones are adapted to their function by being long, so that they communicate with distant parts of the body; They also have branched endings called dendrites that connect with many other neurones
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How are muscle cells specialised to carry out their function?
Lots of protein fibres that can contract; mitochondria for energy
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How are root hair cells specialised to carry out their function?
Lots of mitochondria for active transport; long projection to increase surface area
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How are xylem cells specialised to carry out their function?
Cell wall strengthened by a substance called lignin; consists of dead cells; has a hollow lumen
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How are phloem cells specialised to carry out their function?
Consists of living cells; made of long narrow tubes; end to end tubes
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What is cell diffrentiation?
When the cell becomes specialised to do a particular job
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Wha thappens to a cell as it diffrentiates?
It acquires different subcellular structures to enable it to carry out a certain function
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When was the light microscope invented?
The 16th Century
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What does a light microscope enable us to see?
Plant, animal and bacterial cells
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When was the electron microscope invented?
In 1933
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What does an electron microscope enable us to see?
Sub-cellular structures can be seen carrying out their functions
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How is magnification calculated?
magnification = size of the image / size of actual object
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What does the nucleus of a cell contain?
Chromosomes made of DNA molecules
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How many genes does a cell contain?
46
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What are the stages of the cell cycle?
During the cell cycle the genetic material is doubled and then divided into two identical cells. Before a cell can divide it needs to grow and increase the number of sub-cellular structures such as ribosomes and mitochondria. The DNA replicates to fo
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Why is cell division by mitosis important?
For the growth and development of multicellular organisms
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What is a stem cell?
An undifferentiated cell of an organism which can divide to make different types of cells
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What can stem cells from human embryos be diffrentiated into?
Most human cells
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What can stem cells from bone marrow be diffrentiated into?
Many types of cells including blood cells
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What can meristem tissues from plants diffrentiate into?
Any type of plant cell
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What diseases can stem cells be used as treatment for?
Diabetes and paralysis
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What is theraputic cloning?
When a cloned embryo is used as a source of stem cells
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Why can theraputic cloning be used for medical treatment?
Because it wont be rejected by the patient's body
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What are the cons of theraputic cloning?
Can spread viral infections; has religious and ethical issues
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What can stem cells from meristems in plants be used for?
Producing clones of plants quickly and economically; rare species of plants can be protected from extinction; cop plants with special features can be cloned to produce large numbers of identical plants
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What is diffusion?
When substances move from a high concentration area to a low concentration area: substances in a solution o paticles of gas
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What factors affect the rate or diffusion?
The concentration gradient; the temperature; the surface area of the membrane
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Whhy does a singlecelled organism have a large surface area to volume ratio?
It allows sufficient transport of molecules in and out of the cell to meet the needs of the organism
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How is the small intestine and lungs in mammals and the roots and leaves in plants and gills in fish adapted for exchanging materials?
Large surface area, thin surface, surfaces kept moist, rich blood supply in animals and ventilation in animals
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In multicellular organisms, why are surfaces and organ systems specialised for exchanging materials?
To allow sufficient molecules to be transported in and out of cells for the organism's needs
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What is osmosis?
The movement of water from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane
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What is active transport?
When substances move against the concentration gradient from a low concentration area to a low concentration area
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Why is active transport needed?
Allows mineral ions to be absorbed into plant root hairs; plants require ions for healthy growth; allows sugar molecules to be absorbed which are used for respiration
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What is a tissue?
A group of cells with a similar structure and function
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What is an organ?
A group of tissues performing specific functions
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What is an organ system?
A group of organs working together to form organisms
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What is the digestive system?
An example of an organ system in which several organs work together to digest and absorb food
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What do digestive enzymes do?
Convert food into small soluble molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
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What do carbohydrases do?
Break down carbohydrates to simple sugars
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What do amylase do?
A carbohydrase that breaks down carbohydrates into startch
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What do protease do?
Break down proteins into amino acids
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What do lipases do?
Break down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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What are the products of digestion used for?
To build new carbohydrates; glucose is used in respiration
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Where is bile made and stored?
Made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder
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What does bile do?
It os alkaline to neutralise hydrochloric acid from the stomach; it emulsifies fat to form small droplets which increases the surface area; inceases the rate of fat breakdown by lipase
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What is the heart?
An organ that pumps blood around the body in a double circulatory
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What does the right ventricle do?
Pumps blood to the lungs where gas exchange takes place
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What does the left ventricle do?
Pumps blood around the rest of the body
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What are the blood vessels associated with the heart?
Aorta; vena cava; pulmonary artery; pulmonary vein; coronary arteries
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What are the structures of the lungs?
Trachea; bronchi; alveoli; the capillary network
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What is the natural heart rate controlled by?
A group of cells located in the right atrium that acts as a pacemaker
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What are artificial pacemakers?
Electrical devices used to correct irregularities in the heart rate
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How do the structures of arteries relate to their functions?
They take blood from your heart to your organs; they have thick walls made from muscle and elastic fibres
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How do the structures of veins relate to their functions?
They take blood from your organs back to your heart; thinner walls and valves to prevent backflow
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How do the structures of capillaries relate to their functions?
Allow substances needed by the cells to pass out of the blood; allow substances produced by the cells to pass into the blood; narrow thin-walled blood vessels
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What is blood?
A tissue consisting of plasma, in which the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are suspended
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What is the function of plasma?
Transports various chemical substances around the body: products of digestion, hormones, antibodies, urea, carbon dioxide
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Why do red blood cells contain haemaglobin?
It binds to oxygen to transport it from the lungs to the tissues and cells which need it for respiration
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Why don't red blood cells have a nucleus?
So there is more room for haemoglobin
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Why are red blood cells very small?
So they can fit through the tiny capillaries
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Why are red blood cells shaped like biconcave discs?
Gives them a large surface area that oxygen can quickly diffuse across
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What is the function of white blood cells?
Help to protect the body against infection; they can change shape so they can squeeze out of the blood vessels into the tissues or surround and engulf microorganisms
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What is the purpose of platelets?
Fragments of cells which collect at wounds and trigger blood clotting
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What is coronary heart disease?
Layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries which reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries, resulting in a lack of oxygen for the heart muscle
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What are stents used for?
To keep the coronary arteries open
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What are statins used for?
To reduce blood cholesterol levels which slows down the rate of fatty material deposit
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What happens when a heart valve becomes faulty?
It prevents the valve from opening properly and might develop a leak
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What can faulty heart valves be replaced with?
Biological or mechanical valves
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What are artificial hearts used for?
To keep the patient alive whilst waiting for a heart transplan or to allow the heart to rest as an aid to recovery
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What is health?
The state of physical and mental well-being
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What are diseases?
Major causes of ill health; communicable or non-communicable
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What are the factors of disease?
Diet, stress and life situations
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What makes an individual more likely to suffer from infectious diseases?
Defects in the immune system
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What can trigger cancers?
Viruses in living cells
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What can trigger allergies?
Immune reactions initially caused by a pathogen
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What can severe physical ill health lead to?
Depression and other mental illnesses
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What are risk factors?
Factors that can increase the liklihood of the person getting a disease
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What is a casual mechanism?
Something that may cause a non-communicable disease to develop
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What are the casual mechanisms for cardiovascular disease?
The effects of diet, smoking and exercise
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What are the casual mechanisms for type 2 diabetes?
Obesity
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What are the casual mechanisms for liver and brain functions?
The effect of alcohol
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What are the casual mechanisms for lung disease and cancer?
The effect of smoking
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What are the casual mechanisms for cancers?
Carcinogens, ionising radiation
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What is cancer?
The result of changes in cells that lead to uncontrollable growth and division
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What are benign tumours?
Growths of abnormal cells which are contained in one area, ususally within a membrane, and don't invade other parts of the body
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What are malignant tumours?
They are cancers that invade neighbouring tissues and spread to different parts of the body where they form secondary tumours
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What is the function of the epidermis?
Covers the outer surfaces of the plant for protection
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What is the function of the palisade mesophyll?
The main site of photosynthesis in the leaf
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What is the function of the spongy mesophyll?
The air spaces between the cells that allow gases to diffuse through the leaf
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What is the function of the xylem?
Transports water and minerals through the plant, from roots to leaves; supports the plant
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What is the function of the phloem?
Transports dissolved food and minerals through the plant
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What is the funtion of the meristem tissue?
Found mainly at the tips of the roots and shoots, where it can produce new cells for growth
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How is the root hair cell adapted for the efficient uptake of water by osmosis, and mineral mineral ions by active transport?
Lots of mitochondria for active transport of minerals; long projection to increase the surface area to absorb water and minerals
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How is the xylem adapted to its function?
Cells are arranged end to end but the end walls break down to form hollow tubes; the cell wall of the substance is strengthened by a sunstance called lignin
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How is the phloem adapted to its function?
The end walls of the cells allow sugars through but support the tubes; cells are arranged end to end into tubes; has companion cell
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What is transpiration?
The loss of water from the leaves
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What forms the plant organ system for transport of substances around the plant?
The roots, stem and leaves
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What is translocation?
The movement of food through phloem tissue
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What is the role of the stomata and guard cells?
To control gas exchange and water loss
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What are pathogens?
Microorganisms that cause infectious disease
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How are pathogens spread?
Direct contact, water or air
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How do bacteria and viruses effect the body?
Reproduce rapidly inside the body; bacteria produce toxins that damage tissues andmake us feel ill; viruses live and reproduce inside cells, causing cell damage
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How does the skin defend the body from pathogens?
Has hair; sebacous glands that produce sebum which kills bacteria and fungi
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How does the nose defend the body from pathogens?
Traps particles that may contain pathogens
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How does the trachea and bronchi defend the body from pathogens?
A sheet of mucus traps particles and bacteria; cilia create a wave motion which sweeps mucus along
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How does the stomach defend the body from pathogens?
Glands produce hydrochloric acid which kills bacteria in food
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What do phagocytes do?
Phagocytosis: involves the pathogen being surrounded, engulfed and ingested
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What do lymphocytes do?
Produce protein molecules called antibodies which attach to antigen moleculs on the pathogen; produces antitoxins which are chemicals that neutalize toxins
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What is the process of a vaccination?
Involves introducing small quantities of dead or inactive forms of pathogen into the body to stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies; if the same pathogen re-enters the body the white blood cells respond quickly to produce antibodies
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What are antibodies?
Medicines that help to cure bacterial disease by killing infective bacteria inside the body
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Why can't viral infections be treated by antibiotics?
Antibiotics don't kill viruses
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What are painkillers?
Medicines used to treat the symptoms of a disease but do not kill pathogens
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Why are medical drugs tested and trialled?
To check that they are effective and safe
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What is pre-clinical testing?
Done in the laboratory using cells, tissues and live animals
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What is clinical testing?
Using healthy volunteers and patients; very low doses of the drug are given at the start of the trial; if the drug is safe, more is given to find optimum dosage
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What is the photosynthesis word equation?
carbon dioxide + water >>> glucose + oxygen
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What is the photosynthesis chemical equation?
CO2 + H2O >>> C6H12O6 + O2
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What is photosynthesis?
The endothermic reaction in which energy is transferred from the environment to the chloroplasts by light
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What effects the rate of photosythesis?
Temperature; light intensity; carbon dioxide concentration; the amount of chlorophyll
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What can these factors do?
Any one of them may be the factor that limits photosynthesis
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Why are limiting factors important?
In the economics of enhancing the conditions in a greenhouse to gain the maximum rate of photosynthesis while still maintaining profit
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How is glucose used from photosynthesis?
Used for respiration; converted into insoluble startch for storage; used for the produce of fat or oil; used to produce cellulose; used to produce amino acids
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What is respiration?
An exothermic reaction which is continuously occuring in living cells
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What do organisms need energy for?
Chemical reactions to build larger molecules; movement; keeping warm
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What is aerobic respiration?
Respiration using oxygen
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What is the anaerobic respiration?
Respiration without oxygen
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What is the equation of aerobic respiration?
The reverse of the photosythesis equation
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What is the equation of anaerobic respiration in muscles?
glucose >>> lactic acid
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What is the equation of anaerobic respiration in plant and yeast cells?
glucose >>> ethanol + carbon dioxide
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What is respiration in yeast cells called?
Fementation
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What increases during exercise?
The heart rate, breathing rate and breath volume increasee during exercise to supply the muscles with more oxygenated blood
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What is oxygen debt?
The amount of extra oxygen needed after exercise to react with the lactic acid produced and remove it from cells
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What is metabolism?
The sum of all reactions in a cell or the body
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Card 5

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