Collectivisation

What is collectivisation?
merge all the small farms into one large farm- pool labour and resources= more efficient. State provide tractors and fertilisers
1 of 21
What were the economic reasons for collectivisation?
1927-1929 poor harvests= increased prices= living conditions in cities poorer. 1921- government selling grain surplus abroad= no grain= no money for industrialisation.collective farms=efficient, mechanisation. increased production
2 of 21
What were the ideological reasons for collectivisation?
essential to get capitalist peasants to embrace socialism- lacked revolutionary spirit
3 of 21
What were the political reasons for collectivisation?
appealed to left wing. more appealing than right wing idea of importing grain. Stalin believed agruculture could be turned around by the act of will and strong leadership.
4 of 21
What was the Grain procurement crisis from 1927-1929?
'kulak grain strike' kulaks withheld grain to push the price up= excuse to reintroduce grain requisitioning.Demonstrated peasant ideology was capitalist. Stalin use it as evidence of NEP's failing= undermined Bukharin
5 of 21
What was Stalin's response to the Grain procurement crisis?
reintroduced rationing. grain requisitioning reintroduced. grain hoarding illegal. inform on neighbours- rewarded with land. unpopular. meat requisitioning. send kulaks to prison for 2 years for failing to carry out state instructions
6 of 21
What was dekulakisation and what effect did it have?
liquidate the Kulak class. End of capitalism and independent farming. proposed by 1934 30% collectivised but dekulakisation meant they all did.
7 of 21
What did dekulakisation mean for the majority of peasants and what was their response?
loss of independence, financial loss= rebelled destroyed grain/ livestock. 18 million horses and 100 million sheep/ goats killed between 1929- 1933. destroyed machinery
8 of 21
Who and what were the twenty five thousanders?
25,000 industrial workers sent to countryside. 27,000 volunteered. 2 week course. offer technical help to peasants and instruct them on machinery. Enforced dekulakisation=find grain stores,exile kulaks, force collectivasation
9 of 21
What happened to the majority of Kulaks?
shot or exiled to Siberia= imprisoned in forced labour camps run by secret police- thousands died of disease and hunger. Stalin unmoved 'Moscow does not believe in tears'
10 of 21
What affect did collectivisation have economically and politically?
large scale slaughter of livestock, destruction of tractors, burning crops. Hostility to government= forced to halt in March 1930
11 of 21
What happened once Stalin paused collectivisation?
March 1930- 1/2 russian farms collectivised, by August many had returned to own farms. By end of year 1/4 remained collectivised.
12 of 21
What was the result of the second wave of collectivisation in 1931?
Famine- unrealistic targets= failure to meet would be punished. Grain seized by Red Army- all confiscated- peasants caught hiding grain were shot/ exiled
13 of 21
How was Stalin uncompromising in the famine?
military checkpoints set up to stop food entering Ukraine. Trains shut windows to stop food falling out. International offers of aid rejected= 10+ million died. Seized grain exported or rotted in barns
14 of 21
What was the effect of collectivisation on rural areas?
9,500,000- 10,000,000 exiled. 1929- 150,000 exiled to Siberia figures rose. 10% of every village. unrealistic targets, paid little= anger/ resentment. little incentive to work= productivity fell. exiled Kulaks most hard working.1933-9milliontons less
15 of 21
How effective was the Machine Tractor Stations?
unsuccessful- high hiring price. 75,000 tractors, 2.500 stations. 1/2 farms left out of network.
16 of 21
How many farms were collectivised?
1930- 25% 1941- 100%
17 of 21
What happened to grain export?
grain production fell- grain export increased. 1928- 0.03 million tonnes to 1931- 5 million tonnes exported
18 of 21
What was the effect of collectivisation in the cities?
living conditions fell. value of wages fell by 1/2 between 1928- 1932. meat consumption fell by 2/3.
19 of 21
What effect did collectivisation have on the urban population numbers?
1928- 18%. 1939- 50%. some tripled from 22 million to 63 million.
20 of 21
What were the political consequences of collectivisation?
increased feeling of crisis= united party. Loyal to Stalin, blamed kulaks and peasant saboteurs. Return to heroic communism. Stalin emerged stronger than before.
21 of 21

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What were the economic reasons for collectivisation?

Back

1927-1929 poor harvests= increased prices= living conditions in cities poorer. 1921- government selling grain surplus abroad= no grain= no money for industrialisation.collective farms=efficient, mechanisation. increased production

Card 3

Front

What were the ideological reasons for collectivisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the political reasons for collectivisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the Grain procurement crisis from 1927-1929?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia - 19th and 20th century resources »