Cold War Revision Cards

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  • Created on: 24-05-15 22:38
What did the USA believe in?
1. Capitalism. 2. Free enterprise. 3. Freedom of speech; movement (to be able to leave the country when you want) + assembly (to be able to hold demonstrations). 4. Free elections with a number of political parties. 5. Vast difference between rich +
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What does free enterprise mean?
To be able to set up your own business.
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What did the USR believe in?
1. Communism (equality) a) state owns everything on behalf of the people b) state owns all the business, set the prices, it controls all aspects of life c) standard of living really low d) elections but only one party.
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What did WW2 mean?
The USA + USSR had a common enemy, Hitler + Nazis.
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When was the Yalta Conference + who attended the Yalta Conference?
It was in Feburary 1945. Churchill, Roosevelt + Stalin attended the conference.
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Name 4 agreements that were made in the Yalta Conference
1. USSR would join the USA in the war against Japan in return for a port in Mediterranean. 2. Germany should be divided into 4 zones, one for each ally. 3. Communist govt would be allowed to be established in Poland. 4. Punish war criminals.
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Name 3 other agreements that were made in the Yalta Conference
5. There should be free elections in Eastern Europe. 6. Stalin can have a sphere of influence in Easterm Europe. 7. Establish the UN to work for + maintain peace in Europe.
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Name 2 disagreements that were made in the Yalta Conference
1. Disagreements over Poland's borders.. 2. Disagreements over reparations.
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When was the a) Potsdam Conference b) Who attended the Potsdam Conference c) What had Stalin been doing in Eastern Europe?
a) July-August 1945. b) Truman (who was more anti-communist then FDR) replaced FDR + Atlee replaced Churchill. c) Stalin was taking over Eastern European countries + making them communism. People were fleeing from a fear of communist takeover.
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Why were the USA and Britain alarmed during the Potsdam Conference?
Bc communists were coming to power in the countries of Eastern Europe as part of the Declaration of Liberated Europe.
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What was the difference from the Potsdam Conference to the Yalta Conference.
The leaders no longer had a common enemy so tensions were high esp. due to Truman + Stalin's disagreements.
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Name 4 agreements that were made in the Potsdam Conference
1. Each ally could take reparations from their zones. 2. Confirmed division of Germany + Berlin. 3. Nazi war criminals would be punished + the Nazi party would be banned. 4. Move Poland's borders westwards.
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Name 1 disagreement that was made at the Potsdam Conference
1. Truman dropped the atomic bomb so that Japan would surrender before Russian troops could go into Japan. USA had the atomic bomb July 1945, but Truman did not tell Stalin about it. Stalin was angry bc he wasn't going to get the port.
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Name 1 disagreement that was made at the Potsdam Conference
2. Truman was unhappy about the buffer zone bc although there had been elections he didn't feel they had been free.
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Name 2 disagreements that was made at the Potsdam Conference
3. Stalin wanted compensation as many Russians died. Truman + Churchill didn't want this. 4. Stalin broke his word about Poland + only set up a communist govt.
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Name 2 disagreements that was made at the Potsdam Conference
5. Truman came away angry about the size of reparations + the fact that a communist govt was being set up in Poland. 6. Turman was angry bc Stalin arrested the non-Communist leaders in Poland.
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What was the Decleration of Liberated Europe?
Where Eastern European countries would be allowed to hold free elections to decide how they would be governed.
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What was the Domino Theory?
An idea which suggested that if one country turned communist, the neigbouring countries would follow.
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What Was the Iron Curtain?
In a speech at Fulton, Missouri 1946, Churchill said that an Iron Curtain had decended across Europe. This was an imaginary line that was separating the democratic nations of the West from the Communist controlled states of Eastern Europe.
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How did Br + the USA react to the Soviets action in Eastern Europe?
They were alarmed by the Soviets actions. They agreed on a sphere of influence + that Salin would heavily influence that region, but they didn't expect complete soviet domination.
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How did the USA react to Soviet Expansionism?
The Truman Doctrine + the Marshall Plan.
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What was the Truman Doctrine?
1. Created in 1947 2. USA would support any nations threatened by Communist takeover + wanted to resist it. 3. The aim was to contain (stop the spread of) Communist but not push it back. 3. The USA would not return to isolationism.
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How did the USA help Greece + Turkey in the Truman Doctrine?
The USA gave money to aid Turkey + gave arms + money to Greece when a civil war started in Greece in 1946 between the pro-Western govt + communists.
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What was happening in Greece?
1. The British Army had prevented the Communist rebels in Greece from taking over 2. The British told Truman they could no longer afford to keep their soldiers in Greece, so Truman took over bc the USA was alarmed by the growth of Soviet power.
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Why did the Truman Doctrine particularly help Greece + Turkey?
Bc Greece + Turkey were in Eastern Europe + they were
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Give some background info of the Potsdam Conference
1. War ended in May 1945. 2. USA just tested the bomb. 3 FDR is dead + Churchill loses election.
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State one event which could have caused a Cold War
Creation of Buffer Zone - to protect mother country (USSR).
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How did the USSR gain control of Eastern Europe?
1. Red Army would go in + throw out Nazis. 2. USSR would set up an intervening govt in Baltic States like Estonia. 3. East Germany was given to the USSR at Potsdam. 4. Rigged elections. 5. Murder. 6. Intimidation.
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How else did the USSR gain contrl of Eastern Europe?
7. Salami Tactics - took over countries not by force but slowly using Salami tactics slicing away Govt control bit by bit
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How did Stalin effectively use Salami Tactics?
Firstly Stalin moved slowly. Opposition parties were allowed + in the 1st election voters were given relatively free choice (only if the govt’s they chose were sympathetic to Communist aims + ideals). But gradually the E.European Communists took over
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What are Salami Tactics?
This is a process of threats + alliances (forming relationships) used to overcome opposition. With it an agressor can influence + eventually dominate a country politically, piece by piece.
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Why did the USSR rig elections, murder + intimidate politcal leaders in Eastern Europe?
To ensure communist govt was in charge.
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Why was Yugoslavia a different type of Communist country in the satellite state?
Yugoslavia was communist but more open to the West. Its leader Tito argued with Stalin over political interference. Stalin cut off aid but didn’t invade.
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State 3 things that made things worse in the Cold War
1. Churchill's Iron Curtain speech. 2. Truman Doctrine. 3. Marshall Plan.
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What was the Marshall Plan?
1. Created in 1946. 2. It gave money to any European country that needed it to help rebuild their economy.
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How did the Marshall Plan develop?
1. George Marshall visied Europe to see what was needed. He came seeing that Europe was full of poverty. 2. Truman believed poverty + hardship made countries vulnerable to Communism,
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What were the 2 aims of the Marshall Plan?
a) To stop the spread of Communism (Truman didn't admit this at the time). b) To help the economies of Europe to recover (this provided a market for US exports).
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What were the disadvantages of the Marshall Plan.
1. Only  Only 16 European countries accepted it – and these were all western European states. 2.  Stalin refused Marshal Aid for the USSR + banned eastern European countries from accepting it.
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What was the USSR'S respone to the Marshall Plan?
Stalin feared that the USA's Marshall Aid would weaken communism so he came up with COMINFORM + COMECON.
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What was Cominform?
1. Communist Information Buraeau 2. Created in 1947 3. Aimed to spread Stalin's Communist ideas. 4. Cominform helped Stalin tighten his hold on his Communist allies bc it restricted their contact with the West.
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What else did Cominform do?
5. This organisation coordinated all the communist parties together. 6. Ensured that communist parties were loyal to Stalin. 7. Communist parties were told to organise strikes against the Marshall Plan.
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To qualify for the Marshall Plan, what did European countries have to do?
The countries would have to trade freely with America. This meant America's economy boosted too.
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What was Comecon? (State 4 things)
1. The Council for Mutual Economical Assistance. 2. Created in 1949. 3. Worked to nationalise the states' industries + collectivise agriculture. 4. This was Stalin's answer to the Marshall Plan
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What was Comecon? (State 3 things)
5. It was set up by Stalin to co-ordinate the production + trade of the Eastern European countries. 6. This aimed to encourage the economic development in Eastern Europe. 7. This attempted to prevent trade with Western Europe + the USA.
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What did Comecon result in?
1. US influence was kept low in Eastern Europe. 2. Any economic benefits of Eastern Europe stayed within the satellite states. 3. But the satellite states couldn't access the properity of the West.
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What 3 things caused the Berlin Blockade?
1. The Fr, USA + Br zones in Germany merged to become one zone, Trizonia. 2. The new zone had a single govt + new currency to help economic recovery. 3. East Germany was controlled by the USSR where there was poverty + hunger.
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What was the other thing that caused the Berlin Blockade
4. To Stalin, it seemed that the Allies were building up West Germany in order to attack him.
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What did Stalin not want to happen in Germany?
1. He didn't want USA to have more influence in Germany. 2. He din't want to rebuild Germany.
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What was the Berlin Blockade?
1. Formed in June 1948. 2. Soviet troops set up road + rail blocks to prevent any goods reaching Berlin. 3. Stalin ordered that all land communication between West Berlin + the outside world would be cut off.
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What did West Germany see the Blocakade as?
The west saw the blockade as an attempt to starve Berlin into surrender, so they decided to supply West Berlin by air.
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How did West Berlin survive?
West Berlin survived bc of the Berlin Airlift. The only way of obtaining supplies from the outside world was by air.
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Why did the USSR not shoot down the Berlin Airlift planes?
it would be seen as an act of war.
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What was the Berlin Airlift?
Planes that provided West Berlin with supplies.
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What was the effects of the Belin Blockade?
1. May 1949 - Trizonia became the Federal Republic of Germany (FDR), known as West Germany. 2. Oct 1949 - USSR zone in Germany became the German Democratic Republic (GDR). 3. Iron Curtain became permanent. 4. 2 superpowers began an Arms Race. 5. NATO
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What was NATO
1. North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 2. Forrmed in 1949. 3. Contained most states in Western Europe. 4. It's main purpose was to defend its members from attack. 5. If one member was attacked, all others would help defend it.
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NATO was a military alliance with the direct aim to defend the West against what?
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What was the Warsaw Pact?
1. Created in 1955. 2. Communist version of NATO. 3. It's main purpose was to defend its members from attack. 4. If one member was attacked, all others would help defend it.
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What were some of the problem in East Germany before the blockade?
1. There was lots of people leaving from east to West. 2. Bombing .3. Economically. 4. USSR took heavy reparations from zone.
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What did the more nuclear weapons a country had mean?
The more powerful the country was.
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State 3 Reasons How the USA was to Blame for the Cold War
1. They didn't give enough compensation to the USSR even though they suffered the worse of the attack of Germany. 2. They formed NATO which was a clear military alliance. 3. The USA rebuilt + set up West Germany without consulting Stalin.
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State 1 Reason How the USA was to Blame for the Cold War
4. Set up the Truman Doctrine + Marshall Plan which gave help to Stalin's countries under his sphere of influence.
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State 2 Reasons How the USSR was to Blame for the Cold War
1. Abused the power of the sphere of influence. If they didn't take control of so many countries, they many not have been this situations. 2. Set up the Berlin Blockade which was clear physical resistance against Triazonia.
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State Another 2 Reasons How the USSR was to Blame for the Cold War
3. Set up communist govt's all over Europe. 4. Russia's attitude was cruel - they wanted to cripple Germany, not rebuild it.
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State 2 Reasons How the USA + the USSR were to Blame for the Cold War/ [I'M NOT SURE IF YOU CAN USE THIS OPTION IN 10 MARKERS]
1. Both were very untrusting + always treated each other with suspicion. 2. Both over exagerrated + made things worse by taking an agressive stance.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What does free enterprise mean?


To be able to set up your own business.

Card 3


What did the USR believe in?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did WW2 mean?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


When was the Yalta Conference + who attended the Yalta Conference?


Preview of the front of card 5
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