Cold War

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Describe the allies during WWII
Wartime alliance, not a brotherhood- despite the propaganda posters
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How did Britain and USA feel about USSR at the end of WWI?
Distrusted them greatly. They even sent troops to fight against them in Russian civil war
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What did the Red Scare involve in 1920s America and UK?
Thousands of immigrants deported in USA. In UK govt react harshly to general strike in 1926 fearing it was the work of communists
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In 1920 what did Attorney Mitchell Palmer say of the USSR?
Robbery, not war, is the ideal of Communism
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Ten years before Cold War starts, how was Stalin feeling?
Disappointed with appeasement policy. Hitler growing and this means he is a threat to Russia
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How/why did Britain and US thoughts of Russia change during 1941-45?
They managed an alliance for WWII. The efforts of the Soveits was crucial, Churchill noting 'the Soviets tore out the heart of the German army'
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Which big three attended a conference in February 1945 and where was it?
FD Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin at Yalta
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Who did Stalin agree to enter war against?
Japan, but only once Germany had surrendered
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What was to happen to Germany and Berlin decided at Yalta?
Divided into 4 zones; Berlin was deep in USSR zone and would be subdivided into zones
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What organisation was set up at Yalta that all countries would join?
UN- United Nations
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What did the big three agree would happen to eastern Europe?
It would become a sphere of influence for the USSR
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As countries were liberated through Europe, what was planned to happen next to them?
They would be able to hold free elections
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What was to happen to Poland?
They struck a deal that USSR could move the Polish border and take Polish land as long as the Russians didn't intervene in Greece where the UK was trying to prevent a Communist govt taking power
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Behind the scenes at Yalta how did Stalin feel about Churchill?
Didn't trust him. He was still bitter about Churchill's trickery during WWI
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Behind the scenes at Yalta: What pre-conceptions did Stalin hold of the US and UK?
That they were bitter about the USSR's strength and size
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Behind the scenes at Yalta: How did Stalin try to mock Churchill?
By telling him to play the Soviet National Anthem to the Cons party in Britain
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After Yalta: What did Churchill write to FDR saying about USSR?
Sweeping Soviet influence needed to be halted and a new front needed to be created as far east as possible
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Behind the scenes at Yalta: How did Churchill feel about FDR?
Thought he was too sympathetic to the USSR cause- argued for a French zone to be added as they hated the Soviets
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After Yalta: What was Operation Unthinkable?
A plan for UK, US, German manpower and industry, and Polish forces to impose their will on USSR through total war. It was rejected by Churchill
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Who were the big three who took place at a conference between July-August 1945 and where?
Harry Truman, Josef Stalin and Winston Churchill (replaced by Clement Atlee mid conference) at Potsdam
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What three big changes had taken place between Yalta and Potsdam?
1. Harry Truman had replaced FDR 2. USA had successfully tested the A-bomb 16/7/1945 3. Stalin had liberated many countries in Europe but left troops in them, essentially occupying them. Set up a communist govt in Poland against majority opinion
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What rivalry was Potsdam dominated by?
Truman and Stalin
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Why did USA and USSR disagree over Germany?
USSR wanted Germany to be crippled and stay crippled; USA did not want a repeat of Versailles
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Why did the USA and USSR disagree over reparations?
Stalin wanted huge reparation payments to counter the 20m dead; Truman again did not want to repeat WWI mistake
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Why did the USA and USSR disagree over eastern Europe?
Truman was not happy with the agreement at Yalta that Stalin could help set up pro-soviet govts in eastern Europe
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What was the Iron Curtain and how did this emerge?
This was Churchill's way of referring to the domination Stalin had achieved by 1946 in eastern Europe. Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania all now had Communist govts and owed loyalty to Stalin
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What did Stalin see as crucial after WWII in eastern Europe?
That it must be Soviet influenced so the USSR were not at threat from being attacked again
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Who did Stalin use and how did he use them to limit opposition to him in eastern Europe once he had control over countries?
Secret police. They were used to imprison communist opposers or potential opposers
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What Soviet organisation was set up in October 1947 and what were ?
Communist Information Bureau (Cominform). This was an organisation to help coordinate Communists parties all over Europe
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How did the Cominform help Stalin keep an eye on leaders?
Leaders were regularly brought to Moscow to be briefed. Leaders Stalin seen as weak or potentially treacherous were replaced. Only Tito of Yugoslavia avoided this but was expelled in 1948
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In 1946 relations between allies had broken down, how had this developed by 1948?
It had developed into suspicion and accusation. Distrust was so great that there was talk of war even in public
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What happene to arms expenditure in USA and USSR after WWII finished?
Rather than decrease as normal, it was increased.
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In what year does Ben Walsh submit the Cold War started?
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Why were the differences after WWII different to the differences between USA and USSR in 20s and 30s?
1. US and USSR were now the 2 world super powers. 2. USA did not want to make mistake of isolationism again, collaboration was needed to avoid another conflict 3. There would be no more appeasement, from now every communist action would draw reaction
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Why were Western leaders disappointed with the way the Soviet 'sphere of influence' developed?
They seen it as the Stalinization of Europe, the idea for the Western powers was soviet friendly democratic states
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Which two countries were to shape American reaction to the Stalinization of Europe? and Why?
Czechoslovakia and Greece. They were the only two eastern European countries who were not communist controlled. USA believed even Italy and France were at risk
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What happened in Greece after WWII? How did Britain try to influence?
Greece was split between Monarchists and Communists. Britain sent troops to restore order and enable free elections. In reality they helped monarchists restore power.
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How did the situation in Greece escalate between Britain and Russia?
USSR complained that British action was threatening peace. UN took no action but communists launched civil war. Brits withdrew as couldn't afford to get involved.
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How did the USA get involved in the Greece situation?
Truman stumped up the money for the Brits to stay and fight on behalf of the monarchists. They did maintain power but in 1950 the govt was very weak
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What was the Truman Doctrine?
The Truman doctrine was Truman's idea that the USA would provide money to any country at risk, in the USA's view, of a communist takeover. The policy was called 'Containment'. Its primary aim was to stop the spread of Communism
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What was the Marshall Plan?
General George Marshall found that countries in poverty were most at risk to communism. He said Europe needed $17bn to kickstart the economy. Congress refused to grant money at first.
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What caused the Marshall plan to be granted in USA?
Events in Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia was previously ruled by coalition but in 1948 Communists came down hard- anti-soviet leaders were purged. Jan Masaryk found dead under window- coms said he jumped.
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Why was the Marshall plan viewed as a 2-sided coin?
On one hand was incredibly generous; on the other it was driven by self-interest from USA. It created new markets for USA in europe
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Why did Stalin view Marshall plan with suspicion?
Was worried it would weaken his hold in eastern Europe. Stalin also thought USA was trying to eliminate as many states as possible and make them dependent on the dollar. E.Europe states forbade to apply
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Why did the USA and USSR come dangerously close to war?
The Soviet blockade of Berlin
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What did the allies want to happen to Germany compared to what USSR wanted?
USSR wanted her kept crippled; allies wanted her to re-build her industries so she could feed her people
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What happened in Germany in 1946 between USA, Britain and France?
They unified to make one zone; in 1949 this became West Germany
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What did the allies reform in the one-zone in 1948 and what was the result?
Currency. The reform indicated signs of recovery.
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What was Stalin's response to the currency reform in the one-zone of Germany?
He blockaded West Berlin in June 1948. 2million West Berliners were cut off from supplies. Stalin was trying to drive allies out and make it a wholely soviet area
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Why was this a tricky spot for USA and what did they do about it?
Didn't want to ram the blockade as this could be seen as an act of war.Truman wanted West Berlin to be viewed as a place of hope for east germans. Airlifted supplies in for 10months. March 1949 Stalin lifts blockade
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Why was Berlin seen as a powerful symbol?
From a US point of view it was seen as a 'democratic oasis' amidst communist repression; from USSR POV it was invasive cancer growing in a workers paradise
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What organisation was set-up in the midst of the blockade in Washington 1949?
In April 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) was formed.
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How was Truman feeling by 1950 and why?
Unhappy because: 1. Much of Europe under Russian influence. 2. 1949 Communist forces in China defeat Nationalists who were backed by US money and weapons- China now represented competition 3. 1949 USSR announces its own A-bomb
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Why was Truman unhappy about Korea?
1950- N. Korea invade S.Korea (a US all). N. Korea aided by China. Were pushed back after 3 years but no further progress made
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How did the USA react to events in Korea?
Containment. Policy had two main features: Arms and Allies.
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Explain the details of Allies in policy of containment
Sec of State Dulles set up network of alliances: NATO, South East Asia Treay Organisation (SEATO) in 1954 and Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) in 1955. US supplied money+support to those involved
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How did the USSR respond to allied feature of containment?
Soviets felt the US were trying a policy of encirclement. Responded by signing Warsaw Pact in 1955. Treaty between all eastern European countries except Yugolavia
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Explain the details of Arms in policy of containment
US built up Nuclear arms. Kept soldiers+weapons ready to go at all times. US had 12 B52 bombers in the air 24hours a day
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What feature made nuclear arms more dangerous?
The extra feature of missile launching
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As new leader of the USSR, what helped Khrushchev gain credibility and respect?
Success in the space race and the first testing of the ICBM which took place on May 15th 1957
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What was the missile gap?
It was the alarm of US at the fact USSR had ICBMs before them.
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What was misleading about the missile gap?
It wasn't real. US military commanders went along with it to gain funding and Khrushchev didn't want to admit it because he would lose face
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How did Eisenhower know the missile gap was a myth?
Because he had an insider in the USSR, however he couldn't act on it because his insider was still serving the USSR he couldn't make it public and blow the cover of his insider
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By when had the US developed their own ICBMs and what were they called?
By 1959 the US had developed their own missiles. Two of them were called Atlas and Minuteman
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What other type of missile was developed by the US at the same time as Atlas and Minuteman? And what was unique about them?
Polaris. They could be accurately shot from submarines
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The US also developed medium range ICBMs at this time, why were they significant?
They were significant because they could reach the USSR from Europe and Turkey
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What was the fear factor in the USA? What does Walsh think of the fear factor?
There was terrible fear in the USA of a nuclear attack. Walsh unsure whether the press and media reflected how Americans felt or put them there in the first place
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What were relations like between the USA and Cuba before the revolution and where does Battista fit in?
Cuba was an American ally and Battista was their leader. USA provided Cuba with economic and military support. Battista was a dictator and was bitterly anti-communist
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What happened in Cuba in 1959 after a 3 year campaign?
Battista was overthrown and replaced by Castro. Castro was a charming, charismatic man who was also ruthless and exiled opponents
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How did the USA initially respond to Castro?
At first they recognised him as the new ruler. But after he nationalised US businesses and thousands of cuban exiles called for action this changed.
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How did the USA respond to Castro after the initial response?
As early as June 1960 thought and money put into overthrowing Castro. Sabotage of sugar plantations was considered. American media slated Castro. US businesses refused to co-operate with any businesses using soviet products or materials
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How did Castro respond to the US response?
He assured Americans in Cuba they were safe. Said US could keep naval base. Wanted to run Cuba without interference. However, by summer 1960 allied with USSR. USSR sent $100m of aid and also sent arms
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By Jan 1961, what decision did new president JFK have to answer?
To invade or not to invade. JFK broke off relations. Didn't invade but was not prepared to have a soviet satellite in the back yard
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What happened at the Bay of Pigs?
Rather than invade, JFK supplied arms, equipment and transport for 1,400 exiles to invade and overthrow. They were met by 20,000 and completely wiped out
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What was the impact of the Bay of Pigs invasion?
Cuba and USSR thought it showed US weakness and a reluctance to get involved directly in Cuba.
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By May 1962 what did the USSR have no problems with announcing concerning Cuba?
That they were supplying them with weapons
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By September 1962 what had the Soviets supplied Cuba with?
Missiles, Patrol boats, tanks, radar vans, missile erectors, jet bombers, jet fighters, as well as 5,000 soviet technicians.
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What was Kennedy told by his advisers in September 1962
It was unlikely the USSR would put nuclear missiles on the country
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On 11/9/1962 what did Kennedy say and how did USSR react?
Kennedy said he would prevent nuclear missiles on cuba by an means necessary; USSR responded by claiming that it wouldn't happen
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What happened on 14/10/1962?
A U-2 spy-plane flying over Cuba took pictures showing nuclear missile sites
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What conclusion did experts mate of the photos?
The most developed of the sites would be ready for action in roughly 7 days
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What else did the spy planes find out?
20 Soviet ships were on course for Cuba
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Why was the missile gap a reason for Khrushchev to put missiles in Cuba?
USA had many more long range ICBMs. They also had missiles in Europe and Turkey and so could strike from medium range. Having missiles in Cuba restored the balance
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How was Khrushchev strengthening his own position a reason for putting missiles in Cuba?
Khrushchev could force Kennedy to accept missiles or give concessions. Khrushchev also had to do something to strengthen his position in USSR as it was known USA were much stronger missile wise
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How was defending Cuba a reason for Khrushchev to put missiles on Cuba?
Cuba were an ally and their only satellite in the west. The fact it was so close to the USA also made great propaganda in the USSR
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List of reasons Khrushchev put missiles on Cuba
1. Balance of power 2. Protect Cuba 3. Castro welcomed their arrival 4. Couldn't inflict damage from USSR with medium missiles 5. Khrushchev wanted US to know how it felt 6. Khruschev and Castro believed practice invasion was for real
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JFK options of how to do deal with missile crisis: Do Nothing. Explain
For: USA still far more powerful, could still destroy USSR, USSR would't use the missiles, Overraction would be bad. Against: Would show US weakness, USSR had already ignored warning
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JFK options of how to deal with the missile crisis: Surgical Air Attack. Explain
Immediate air attack to destroy bases. For: would destroy bases and weapons. Against: Destruction not guaranteed, would kill soviet soldiers, to attack without warning was immoral
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JFK options of how to deal with the missile crisis: Invasion. Explain
All out invasion by land and sea. For: invasion would eliminate missiles and oust Castro. Against: It would provoke a similar response from Soviets possibly in Berlin.
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JFK options of how to deal with the missile crisis: Diplomatic pressures. Explain
Get the UN to intervene and negotiate. For: It avoided conflict. Against: If the USA was forced to back down it would show weakness
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JFK options of how to deal with the missile crisis: Blockade. Explain
A ban on any further supplies coming into Cuba from USSR and call for Soviets to get rid of Nukes. For: shows seriousness but not act of war, put onus on Khrushchev to act. Against: didn't get rid of missiles. USSR could do the same in berlin
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What happened on 16th October?
Kennedy was informed of the pictures. Ex Comm was formed
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What does Kennedy decide on the 20th October?
Kennedy opts for blockade
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What does Kennedy announce on 22nd October?
Kennedy announces blockade and puts public pressure on Khrushchev to get missile out of Cuba
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What does Khrushchev do on 23rd October?
Khrushchev ignores the blockade and does not acknowledge the fact USSr have missiles in Cuba
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What happens on 24th October?
Blockade begins. As ships enter the blockade zone they show no sign of turning around. Then at 10:32am they stop and turn around
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What do the spy planes observe on 25th October?
Despite ships turning around, the nuclear bases on land are developing at a fast rate
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What does Khrushchev say in his first letter to Kennedy on 26th October?
Missiles are for defence. Lift Blockade and assure Cuban safety and missile removal is another question. (This is the first time Khrushchev acknowledges missiles)
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What does Khrushchev include in his second letter on 27th October? Also, what else happens on this day?
USSR will remove missiles if missiles are removed from Turkey. U-2 spy plane shot down over Cuba- pilot killed. President advised to launch retaliatory attack immediately
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How does Kennedy respond on 27th October to Khrushchev letters?
Kennedy delays attack. Ignores 2nd letter but accepts terms of the first letter. Threatens attack
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What course of action do Khrushchev and Kennedy take on 28th October?
In the interest of peace they remove the missiles- he says they need 30 days. Kennedy lifts the blockade but keeps eyes on Cuban subversion
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What were the outcomes of the Missile Crisis for the USA?
Kennedy's reputation improved. Kennedy stood up to hardliners in his govt. Kennedy had to remove Turkey missiles- NATO were unhappy about this
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What were the outcomes of the Missile Crisis for the USSR?
Khrushchev was responsible peacemaker. Keeping Cuba safe was big achievement, valuable ally. Got US to withdraw turkey missiles. Exposed USA to to criticism. However, Khrushchev backed down. Khruschev never closed missile gap. K'chev ousted 1964
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What were the outcomes of the Missile Crisis for the Cold War?
Helped thaw the ice. Hotline set up WhiteHouse-Kremlin. Nuclear test ban treaty signed in 1963. Super powers avoided direct confrontation for the rest of cold war. It made Soviets aware they didnt need to keep up, their weapons were enough 2do damage
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What were the outcomes of the Missile Crisis for Cuba?
Castro upset with Khrushchev but recognised he had no choice. Cuba stayed communist and heavily armed. Castro kept control of nationalised US companies
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Card 2


How did Britain and USA feel about USSR at the end of WWI?


Distrusted them greatly. They even sent troops to fight against them in Russian civil war

Card 3


What did the Red Scare involve in 1920s America and UK?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


In 1920 what did Attorney Mitchell Palmer say of the USSR?


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Card 5


Ten years before Cold War starts, how was Stalin feeling?


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