Cold war in Asia Malaya

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What was the initial reaction to British rule after the war?
There was little opposition
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What was the cause of the main issues in Malaya?
The ethnic mix in the populations
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What was the ethnic mix in Malaya?
Malayans, Indians and Chinese
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Who had pre-war British rule benefited the most in Malaya? What was the consequence?
The indigenous Malayans had benefited the most. The much wanted equal citizenship rights were not granted.
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What happened to Malaya in the war?
The Malayans remained docile during the Japanese occupation of 1942-1945, but the Sino-Japanese war resulted in brutality towards the Malayan Chinese.
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What was the result of Japanese brutality towards the Chinese in Malaya?
There was a Malayan People’s Anti Japanese Army which many Chinese joined.
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Who made up the majority of members of the Anti-Japanese Army.
Chinese who were members of the Chinese Malayan Communist Party (MCP)
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When was the MCP founded?
1930
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Why were the Malayans reluctant for the Chinese to have equal rights?
The Chinese outnumbered them
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Why did the Chinese and the Malayans not get on because of the actions of the war?
The Chinese resented the lack of Malayan resistance in the war.
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How did the Chinese actions in the war affect the British attitude to them?
They were more inclined to their cause in Malaya.
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What does BMA stand for?
British Military Organisation
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What was the BMA supposed to do?
Its job was to establish order and facilitate the return of Civilian rule.
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What damaged confidence in Britain?
Confidence in Britain had been damaged after they surrendered to the Japanese, and by the BMA that failed to stop a minority of British soldiers engaging in plunder and **** and was ineffective in handling economic problems and communal violence.
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What was the Malayan Union and who was involved?
Britain proposed a Malayan Union that consisted of the Malay peninsula states, but not the port of Singapore with its majority of Chinese population in which non Malays would receive equal citizenship rights.
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Why was the Malayan Union set up?
A centralised government would revitalise the economy preparing Malaya for independence. Britain appreciated the Chinese war efforts. Feared that the Chinese would change allegiances to China and seemed to make sense in preparation for independence
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When was Malayan Union set up?
1st April 1946
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What was the Malayan reaction to the Malaya Union?
It was opposed. The powers of their traditional rulers were removed, who had high religious, political and social status, and equal citizenship rights were granted.
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What happened to the Malayan Union and why?
The union was cancelled being replaced with the Federation of Malaya agreement. This was a result of its unpopularity. The UMNO was set up in protest to it so they had to act.
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What did the Federation of Malaya do?
Restored the power of traditional Malayan rulers and made equal citizenship rights dependent on 15 years or residence for non-Malayans
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What did the British hope with regard to Malayan independence and why?
The British hoped that independence was a way off in the future because Malayans weary politically inexperienced, and the tin and rubber resources in Malaya were key income sources for the British.
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What was the MCP's reaction to the united front policy?
They collaborated, hoping to gain peace non violently
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What did the MCP encourage?
encouraged working class discontent about food shortages and low wages.
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What happened throughout 1946? What made it stop?
There was a series of strikes. They backed down when the BMA used force against strikers
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Why did the MCP decide on an armed attack?
Life was hard for Chinese trade unions. The CCP had made inspirational progress in China.
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Who was Lai Teck, what happened and what was the effect?
MCP leader Lai Teck who had masterminded the peace strategy had disappeared along with MCO funds in March 1947. While under investigation for having worked with the British, and was replaced by more radical leaders who were inclined to violence.
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Why was the MCP made illegal?
The MCP was made illegal because of the murder of three British planters were murdered by the MCP’s MRLA.
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What was the MRLA, who was involved and what did they do?
Initially the MRLA had around 2300 front line fighters (their numbers peaked at 7000 in 1951). They used weapons that had not been surrendered by the MPAJA in 1945. they had no foreign support but the British believed that it was USSR supported
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What numbers were involved in the emergency?
In 1948 the communist insurgents were outnumbered by 9000 Malay police and ten British infantry battalions. They had army reinforcements, armoured cars, artillery and aircraft. By early 1950 there were 16220 police.
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When were the Malayan communists effectively defeated?
1955
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When was the emergency declared over?
1960
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Why were the communists defeated in Malaya? (3 reasons)
Government force and power The isolation of the MCP through economic and political concessions to other Chinese, for example the introduction of elected local governments from 1952 Opposition to the MCP amongst moderate Chinese
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Who came up with the counter insurgency campaign?
Sir Gerald Templer
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When was the counter insurgency campaign?
Started 1952
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What was the counter insurgency campaign?
Strategic hamlets that defended villages and cut them off from Communist guerrillas
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What announcement was made in 1952?
Independence was imminent
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When did Malaya get independence?
1957
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What happened in 1963?
Federation of Malaya joined with British territories in Borneo and Singapore to form the state of Malaysia.
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Who improved the police in Malaya?
Colonel W N Gray.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the cause of the main issues in Malaya?

Back

The ethnic mix in the populations

Card 3

Front

What was the ethnic mix in Malaya?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who had pre-war British rule benefited the most in Malaya? What was the consequence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happened to Malaya in the war?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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