Cold War - 14: President Nixon's Policies in Vietnam

  • Created by: Madisonxo
  • Created on: 24-04-19 15:49
Nixon's policies?
Peace with honour, Vietnamisation
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Vietnamisation?
LBJ's Americanisation policy = failure. Vietnamisation = pulling US troops and replacing them w/S Vietnamese forces. US poured forces into Vietnam.
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Positive impact of Vietnamisation?
Turned S Vietnamese army into effective fighting force - 1972 Spring Offensive from N Vietnamese was resisted by the South with Operation Linebacker I supporting them.
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Negative impact of Vietnamisation?
Morale of S Vietnamese remained low, high casualty rate, corruption
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When was Operation Menu?
March 1969
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What was Operation Menu?
Bombing offensive in Cambodia
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Aims of Operation Menu?
To sever the supply lines (Ho Chi Minh trail), pressurise N Vietnam into agreeing to an acceptable peace settlement for S Vietnam, compensate for Vietnamisation (retain confidence of S Vietnamese)
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Who were the Khmer Rouge?
Anti-Nol (Cambodia's pro-US head of state) communist movement backed by the North Vietnamese.
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Consequences of extending the war into Cambodia?
Ability of Vietcong = undermined, no strategic gains for US, N Vietnamese moved deeper into Cambodia, opposition at home increased.
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Example of opposition at home?
May 1970: Kent state Uni, 4 students shot by US national guards.
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When did Congress revoke Gulf of Tonkin resolution?
June 1970
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When was Operation Lam Son 719?
February 1971
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What was Operation Lam Son 719?
Plan to support ARVN invasion into Laos w/air support. Aimed to disrupt supply route Ho Chi Minh trail.
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Results of Op Lam Son 719?
ARVN forced to withdraw. Spurred North on to an offensive position rather defensive. Vietnamisation strategy was failing to move US towards peace with honour. (Nixon = failing)
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China's relations with USSR at this point
Sino-Soviet relations were deteriorating. Zedong criticised USSR for CMC, border clashes by late 1960s.
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China's relations with USA at this point
To avoid international isolation, China tried to ease relations with the West
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Artichoke approach
Gradual peeling off of restrictions layer by layer, rather than a wholesale removal of controls (to improve relations with China)
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When was the prelim Paris Peace Talks?
May 1968
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Why did these talks stall initially?
Over whether the US would commit to stopping the bombing of N Vietnam
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Why did the talks stall in October 1968?
Over who was represented at the negotiating table: The South was opposed to talks if the NLF was represented. NLF did not want to appear weak after Tet.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Vietnamisation?

Back

LBJ's Americanisation policy = failure. Vietnamisation = pulling US troops and replacing them w/S Vietnamese forces. US poured forces into Vietnam.

Card 3

Front

Positive impact of Vietnamisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Negative impact of Vietnamisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When was Operation Menu?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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