Cold Environments - Definitions

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Accumulation
The input of snow and ice into ther glacial system (mainly snow)
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Ablation
The output of water from a glacier
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Glacial Budget
The balance between accumulation and ablation over a year
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Equilibrium Point
The place where accumulation and ablation are equal
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Supraglacial material
Material carried on top of the glacier
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Englacial
Material carried inside the body of the glacier
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Subglacial
Material moved along the base of the glacier
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Till/boulder clay
The unsorted mixture of material deposited by the glacier
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Lodgement till
Material spread onto the valley floor beneath the ice, by a moving glacier
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Ablation till
Material dropped as a glacier melts. Close to the snout (where most ablation occurs)
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Arete
Steep-sided ridge
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Pyramidal peak
Pointed mountain peak with at least 3 sides
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Glacial trough (U-shaped valley)
Steep-sided valleys with flat bottoms
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Hanging valleys
Waterfalls into the main glacier from tributary glaciers
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Truncated spurs
Ridges of land that have been cut off
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Valley steps
Steps within the glacial trough
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Tarns
Lakes that form in corries after the glacier has retreated
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Ribbon lakes
Long, thin lakes that form in the valley once the glacier has retreated
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Fjords
Long, deep inlets
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Roche moutonnee
Resistant (hard) mass of rock on the valley floor
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Frost contraction
When cracks form in the permafrost due to low temperatures causing the ground to contract.
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Talik
Unfrozen ground
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The output of water from a glacier

Back

Ablation

Card 3

Front

The balance between accumulation and ablation over a year

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The place where accumulation and ablation are equal

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Material carried on top of the glacier

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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