Cognitive Psychology

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What was the aim of L&P's experiment?
To see if the nature of a question had an effect on the answer given. Specifically, L&P wanted to find out if a verb used in a question about speed affected the estimates of speed.
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Who were the participants in L&P's first experiment and describe the materials used.
45 students who were shown 7 clips of traffic accidents from seattle safety agency, that were 5-30 seconds long.
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What was the IV in L&P's first experiment?
The critical question: "how fast were the cars going when they SMASHED INTO/COLLIDED/BUMPED, HIT/CONTACTED each other?
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What was the estimate of speed for the verb SMASHED?
40.8MPH
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What was the estimate of speed for the verb COLLIDED?
39.3MPH
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What was the estimate of speed for the verb BUMPED?
38.1MPH
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What was the estimate of speed for the verb HIT?
34.0MPH
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What was the estimate of speed for the verb CONTACTED?
31.8MPH
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What explanations did L&P offer for experiment 1?
*we can distort memories of participants *Participants responded to demand characteristics
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What was the procedure of L&P's second experiment?
150 student ppts eatched a one minute film (4second sequence) of a multiple car pile up and then filled in a questionnaire.
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What were the three critical questions in experiment 2 of L&P?
*How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? *How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? *No question about speed of cars- control group.
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What was the critical question in the questionnaire filled out by ppts one week after experiment 2?
Did you see any broken glass?
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How many ppts answered yes to broken glass in the "smashed" group?
16
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How many ppts answered yes to broken glass in the "hit" group?
7
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How many ppts answered yes to broken glass in the control group?
6
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What conclusions did L&P come to?
Two types of information make up our memory of a complex event; information from the event + information gathered after the event.
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What is a theory of mind?
The ability to understand that other people may have thoughts and opinions that are different to our own.
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What was the aim of BC?
To test TOM in high functioning adults with autism or Asperger's.
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What method did BC use?
Quasi lab experiment.
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Describe group 1 in BC (autistic).
13 men + 3 wwomen, avergae age of 28.6, normal intelligence, recruited through national autistic society magazines and clinics.
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Describe group 2 in BC (normal functioning).
25 men + 25 women, average age of 30, normal intelligence, no history of psychiatric disorder, subject panel at university dpt.
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Describe group 3 in BC (control group- tourettes)
8 men + 2 women, average age of 27.77, recruited from a refferel centre in london.
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Describe BC's eye task.
25 eye regions, black and white, same size, shown for 3 seconds, forced choice of mental states
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Give some examples of target terms/foil terms in the eyes task of BC.
concerened/unconcerned, attraction/ignoring you, serious message/playful message,interested/disinterested
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What was the Happe's strange stories task?
A series of stories about social interaction. They were either read to or were read by the participant who then had to answer a series of questions about the story. The stories were either physical or mentallistic.
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What control tasks did BC use?
Gender recoginition task, Basic emotion recognition task.
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What were the results of BC?
group 1 significantly underperfromed in the eyes task/ happes strange stories task but had no disadvantage in the controll task.
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What did BC conclude?
Autism is caused by a cognitive defecit whereby an andvanced T.O.M doesnt develop.
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What is representational symbol learning?
When an individual can refer to the objects when there are no contextual cues to provide association, eg fetching a ball even if it's in a different room.
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What did Terrace suggest about language acquisition of chimpanzees?
Chimps simply copy their instructors and have no real sense of language.
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What is a Lexigram?
A pictorial version of a dictionary.
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define displacement
the ability to talk of things which aren't present, eg unicorns.
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define arbitrariness
where there is no natural connection between a word or sound and the thing it denotes.
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Define productivity
When words allow speakers to create new, never-before-heard utterances that others can understand, eg swag.
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define cultural transmission
#the language that individuals learn to speak comes from those around them
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What was the aim of Savage Rumbaugh?
To study human language capabilities in Pygmy chimps, , speicifcally, to prove that pygymy chimps were capable of representational language understanding, rather than just associative.
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What sort of experiment was SR?
Longitudinal case study with a quasi experimental design.
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What was SR's IV?
The species of chimpanzee- Pygmy (kanzi & Mulkia) or common (Sherman & Austin).
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What was SR's DV?
Their language acquisition.
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How was communication conducted in SR?
Visual symbols lexigram, pointing board, spoken english, gestures, american sign language.
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How old was Kanzi during the time of SR's report?
30-47 months
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How old was Mulikah during the time of SR's report?
11-21 months
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Where did SR's experiment take place?
The research centre where they were born and lived.
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How were Kanzi and Mulikah reared?
Kanzi was allowed to observe his mum so learnt symbols on the lexigram and Mulika observed Kanzi.
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What happened after Kanzi and Mulikah were seperated from Matata and what differences were there between the Pygmy and common chimps?
K&M werent trained with lexigrams whereas S&A were. The experimenters and variety of communication was kept the same for all animals.
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How were the chimps tested in an outdoor environment?
Food was placed around the research centre, photographs of the food meant that the chimps could go to the place where the pile of food was.
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What did K&M do in their indoor environment?
Helped in a variety of domestic activities such as doing the laundry, wiping up spills spontaneously or watching TV.
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How did SR record data?
*each utterance was classified as it occured as either correct or incorrect, spontaneous, imitated or structured.
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What are spontaneous utterances?
Those initiated by K&M with no prior prompting.
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What are imitated utterances?
Those that include any part of a companion's prior to a keyboard utterances.
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What are structured utterances?
Those initiated by a request, question or object.
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How was a word classified as part of K&M's vocab?
Occur spontaneously on 9 out of 10 occassions followed by a concordance of 9 out of 10 additional occurence in 100% agreement. Note that video recorders were used.
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How many words did kanzi and mulika each ecquire?
Kanzi- 46, Mulikah-37
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What were the first words that Kanzi learnt?
Orange, peanut, banana
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Compare k&m's use of spontaneous/imitates utterances.
Mulikas rate of spontaneous utterances is slightly lower and imitated utterances was slightly lower.
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Compare common chimps use of imitation with Pygmy chimps.
Common- more closely linked to situations promoted by actions of the teacher
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What were the Pygmy chimps results of formal testing?
K&M could select lexigrams in response to the spoken english word, select photographs in response to the spoken english word and select photographs when shown lexigrams.
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What were the Common chimps results of formal testing?
S&A were able to select correct photographs when shown the lexigram, however, their performance dropped to chance when asked to select the correct photograph in response to the spoken English word.
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How did SR use formal testing?
Certain situations were set up for K&M to pick out scattered objects in certain object, if failed they would be shown the correct way.
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How did SR use informal testing?
A record was kept of use of the Lexigram and words were categorised as correct, incorrect, spontaneous, imitated or structured.
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What conclsuions did SR come to>
Pygmy chimps can comprehend spoken English whereas common chimps can't. They argue that Matata didn't acquire language as she was past the critical age, common chimps can easily generalise symbols but not specify, Kanzi could follow rules of syntax
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Describe rules of syntax
Completing a task which is beneficial to others but not themselves.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who were the participants in L&P's first experiment and describe the materials used.

Back

45 students who were shown 7 clips of traffic accidents from seattle safety agency, that were 5-30 seconds long.

Card 3

Front

What was the IV in L&P's first experiment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the estimate of speed for the verb SMASHED?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the estimate of speed for the verb COLLIDED?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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