Cognitive Psychology

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Define cognition
About the mental processes needed to make sense of ther world.
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What are the key assumptions of the cognitive approach?
1) Bahaviour can be explained in terms of how the mind operates; like an info processor. 2) What we do is determined by our perception of events and our thought processes. 3) Mind works similarly to a computer; inputting, storing and retrieving data.
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What are the 5 cogntive processes?
Attention, problem solving, langauge, mamory and perception.
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Explain the information processing model
The mind works like an input-output system, it explains how we receive, interpret and respond to info. [Input] take in info from environment - mind processes it - [output] behaviour.
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Use an example to explain the input, processing and output in the information processing model.
Crossing a road. Input - The sounds of traffic and the acrs you can see. Processing - Deciding how fast the cars are going and whether it's safe to cross or not. Output - Behaviour that follows; crossing/not crossing.
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Explain the computer analogy
The mind is similar to a computer in many ways. Both receive info PC through a keyboard/disc, Mind through senses. Both process and store info PC runs a programme, Mind hears convos, sees faces. Both output info PC image on screen, Mind behaviour LCT
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What methods are used in studying cognitive psychology?
1) Experiments (lab, field). 2) Case studies (of braindamaged patients)
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How does something get into our memory? (3 processes)
Encoding - Literally means to put somehting into a code (chemical trace). Storage - As a result of encoding the info is stored within the memory system. Retrieval - To recover stores info from the memory system; remembering or 'recall'.
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How is memory measured?
Capacity - How much info can it hold? Duration - How long can the info be held for?
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What do 'span tests' measure?
The capacity of the STM.
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Explain the primacy effect
Among earlier list items the first few items are recalled more frequently than the middle items because they were rehearsed and are in LTM.
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Explain the recency effect
When people are asked to recall a list of items in free recall (any order) people tend to begin recall with the end of the list, recalling those items best as they are still in STM.
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What is the STM capacity?
5-9 items.
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What is the LTM capacity?
No known limit has been found.
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What is STM affected by and how?
Interference because it prevents rehearsal.
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Why would ealier list items be unaffected by interference?
They were already in the LTM.
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If there are different types of amnesia, what does this suggest about the brain and memory?
Different parts of the brain deal with old and new memories.
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If some people have their STM affected, but not their LTM (or vice-versa), what does this suggest about memory and the brain?
Different parts of the brain deal with STM and LTM.
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How can Clive Wearing remember how to play the piano and how to talk, but not recognise the Queen?
There are different types of memory e.g. memory for skills, memory for names/faces.
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Explain the 1st stage of the Multi-store Model (MSM)
Info comes in from the environment through our senses into the sensory memory where it lasts 2-5 secs as it's fragile and sensitive. The info is an exact copy of the info coming through our senses.
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Explain the 2nd stage of the Multi-store Model (MSM)
If the info in the sensory memory is attended to it flows into STM where it lasts for 18-30 secs. Forgetting can occur through interference as it prevents rehearsal and displacement where new info pushes out older info due to small capacity.
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Explain the 3rd stage of the Multi-store Model (MSM)
If the info in the STM is rehearsed it flows into LTM where it can stay for mins-unknown. Forgetiing can occur through decay (chemical trace fades), interference (similar info gets confused and forgotten) and cue-dependency (not right cue to jog mem)
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Explain the levels of processing theory (LOP)
We don't consciously make memories, instead the info is distinctive, relevant or requires time to process on a deep level and we are therefore more likely to remember info we don't intend to.
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What types of rehearsal do Craik & Lockhart suggest there are?
Maintenance - we rehearse the info to store it for a short time. Elaborative - A deeper conscious duration of the memory.
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What types of processing do Craik & Lockhart suggest there are?
Structural - the pysical structure of the word. Phonetic - the sound of the word. Semantic - The menaing of the word.
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What levels of processing create the most and least durable memories?
Most durable memories - semantic processing. Least durable memories - structural processing.
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How is the MSM theory supported?
Evidence the STM and LTM are in seperate distinct stores, studies of amnesiacs like Wearing, Peterson x2 (1959) demonstrated trigrams were forgotten quickly if rehearsal was interrupted.
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How is the MSM theory weakened?
Considered too simplistic, doesn't explain recall from unrehearsed info and lack of recall from rehearsed info, Shallize and Warring study on crash victim could add to LTM, but not STM.
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How is the LOP theory supported?
Craik and Tulving '75 words semantically processed remembered the best, Hyde and Jenkins '73 judging words and processing menaing increased recall, why we remember some info better and for longer showing how processing can aid memory.
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How is the LOP theory weakened?
Concept of depth is vague and cannot be objectively measured, Morris et al '77 pps recalled more words phonetically processed than semantically, doesn't explain HOW deeper processing results in better memory.
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Explain 2 similarities between MSM and LOP
1) Both believe that something more than just attention is needed to make durable memories. 2) Bothuse vague terms in their explanations; not defining 'rehearsal', or saying how to measure 'depth'.
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Explain 2 differences between MSM and LOP
1) MSM says rehearsal is needed for durable memories, but LOP says smantic processing is needed. 2) MSM measures memory by duration and capcity, but LOP measures by strength and depth.
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Explain 2 differences between MSM and LOP
3) MSM mentions general rehearsal, but LOP describes maintenance and elaborative rehearsal. 4) MSM says memory is kept in seperate stores, but LOP says there are 3 levels of processing that create the durability of the memories.
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Why do we forget?
Repressed, injury/illness, not interesting, don't think about it or rehearse it, confused between similar info, stress.
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What is the most likely reason for STM loss and why?
Availabilty problem because the info is displaced or has been there too long.
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What is the most likely reason for LTM loss and why?
Accessibilty problem because the info can't be retreived at that time because there is not the right cue.
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Explain the interference theory of forgetting
Info we recently hear is becoming confused with similar info we heard earlier, so the recent info is temp forgotten. OR the info we heard previously is becoming confused with similar info we heard recently, so the older info is temp forgotten.
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What type of information gets more confused and why? Use an example
More similar info gets confused as it is more likely to cause interference. For example info heard in a French lesson is more likely to cause interference with info heard in a Spanish lesson than info heard in a Biology lesson.
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What is Proactive interference, using an example?
When newer info is forgotten because it is confused with older info. E.g. cups used to be kept in the cupboard by the sink, but last week were moved to the cupboard by the kettle. However, when you want a cup you go to the cupboard by the sink still.
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What is Retroactive interference, using an example?
When older info is forgotten because it is confused with newer info. E.g. you have moved house and got a new telephone number and now you can't remember your old telephone number.
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Explain how Baddeley & Hitch supports the interference theory of forgetting
When rugby players were asked to recall the teams they'd played recall was more affected (reduced) by the number of teams played, rather than the passage of time.
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Explain how McGeoghand MacDonald '24 supports the interference theory of forgetting
When pps were asked to learn a list of words, then learn another kind of list, then recall first list, group with most similar words had the worst recall.
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Explain how Jenkins and Dallenback '24 supports the interference theory of forgetting
PPs learnt nonsense syllables then half sleep and half continue their lives. Those who slept had better recall as there was less interference.
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Why are the supporting studies of the interference theory of forgetting weak?
The studies have low eco.val as they are in artificial lab settings so pps behaviour may be unnatural or with demand.chars. Low int.val as pps often asked to learn unrelated words which is not a true test of everyday memory.
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What real life experiences can the interference theory of forgetting help to explain?
Why we may get similar subjects confused at school.
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Describe Tulving's cue-dependent theory of forgetting in terms of enconding
When we encode a memory we remember where we were and how we felt not an isolated thing. The more similar the encoding event and retrieval event the more likely we'll remember the info. Forget if the retrieval & encoding are diff as not right present
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Explain the 2 types of cues according to Tulving.
Context cues - any info about the encodings surrounding situation e.g. smell, where? State cues - any info about your emotional or pysical state during encoding e.g. happiness, arousal.
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The cue-dependent theory of forgetting suggests the memory is temporarily forgetton from LTM, what does this mean?
Theer is an accessibilty problem, meaning the info is there, but it can't be retrieved as there is not the right cue present.
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Explain how Schab supports the cue-dependent theory of forgetting
Showed that chocolate can act as a context cue to aid recall as pps who smelled chocolate during encoding and retrieval remembered more than pps who smelt chocolate only during encoding.
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Explain how Lang supports the cue-dependent theory of forgetting
Showed that fear can act as a state cue to aid recall as pps scared by spiders at encoding and retrieval had better recall than pps with spiders only at encoding.
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Explain how Smith supports the cue-dependent theory of forgetting
Showed that music can act as a context cue to aid recall as pps who heard the same music at encoding and retrieval had better recall than pps who heard diifferent music at encoding and retrieval.
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How do the police use cue-dependent theory of forgetting to help witness' remember details?
They can use reconstructions of the scene of the crime to jog the witness' memory.
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Why are the supporting studies of the cue-dependent theory of forgetting weak?
They ask pps to learn a list of unrelated words or nonsense syllables which is not a test of everyday memory so the studies have low int.val.
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What real-life occurrence does the cue-dependent theory of forgetting help to explain?
Brown & McNeill's tip of the tongue phenomenom where you forget something if you don't have the right cue to jog your memory.
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What are the similarities between the the theory of interference and the cue-dependent theory of forgetting?
Both suggest forgetting happens because of an accessibilty problem where the info is there, but is temp not able to be recalled.
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What are the differences between the the theory of interference and the cue-dependent theory of forgetting?
Inter - forgetting occurs when similar info gets confused, cue dep - it's when the correct cues are not there. Inter - STM and LTM, cue dep - only LTM. Inter - durable mems needs focus on one piece of info at a time, cue dep - needs the right cues.
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Explain the procedure in Godden & Baddeley '75
Field exp,18 pps uni diving club in Scot. pps learn 38 word pairs then recall. 4 diff exp conditions. 4 days, repeated measures design, random allocation. Tested in pairs. After 4mins to change context or not, then 2mins recall.
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Explain the results and conclusion in Godden & Baddeley '75
Best recall L&R on dry land; average of 13.5 words. Worst recall L under & R dry; average of 8.4 words. When learning and recall were in the same environment, recall was 50% higher than when not. The natural env can act as a context cue to aid recall
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Evaluate Godden and Baddeley '75 in terms of validity and generalisability
High eco.val as pps are divers in natural open water setting. Low int.val as unrelated words is not a true test of everyday mem. Low gen as pps are all from diving club not gen to wider pop.
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Evaluate Godden and Baddeley '75 in terms of reliabilty
Not reliable as field exp in open water; ext variables not possible to control. There could have been cheating as pps tested in pairs (reduce val). However, unlikley to have cheated as all uni research and would want results to be valid.
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Explain the procedure in Craik and Tulving '75
24 pps look into a tachistoscope at word flashed for fraction of a sec, asked Q about the word. Diff type of procc required. 60 words & Q's. 120 new words added to orig. All words flashed, pps had to indicate is word was from orig through a clicker.
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Explain the results and conclusion in Craik and Tulving '75
65% of words semantically processed recognised. %^% of words phonetically processed recognised. 17% of words structurally processed recognised. The LOP does affect recogntion of words.
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Explain the strengths of Craik and Tulving '75
High contol of ext variables as lab exp; cause and effect relationship between IV and DV. Procedure highly standardised; high replicability. PPs not told of recognition test before so valid way of not deliberately trying to remember.
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Explain the weaknesses of Craik and Tulving '75
Setting artificial (lab exp); eco.val is low and pps behaviour may be unnatural. PPs asked to rec a list of unrelated words; not a true test of everyday mem; low int.val. Findings contradicted by Morris et al; found phonetical processing led to best
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Explain the similarities between Craik and Tulving '75 and Godden and Baddeley '75
Both learn list of unrelated words, so both have low int.val. Repeated measures design in G&B all 4 conditions, and in C&T all 3 types of processing.
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Explain the differences between Craik and Tulving '75 and Godden and Baddeley '75
G&B high eco.val divers in natural env, C&T low eco.val; lab. C&T easier to replicate for reliability; high contol of ext variables. More d.chars risk in G&B; all pps did cond, so may have guessed and changed their beh. G&B in pairs; cheating.
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Card 2

Front

What are the key assumptions of the cognitive approach?

Back

1) Bahaviour can be explained in terms of how the mind operates; like an info processor. 2) What we do is determined by our perception of events and our thought processes. 3) Mind works similarly to a computer; inputting, storing and retrieving data.

Card 3

Front

What are the 5 cogntive processes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain the information processing model

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Use an example to explain the input, processing and output in the information processing model.

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