Cognitive Key words

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Model
theories based on information-processing systems
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Short-term memory
a temporary store where small amounts of information can be kept for brief periods of time.
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Long-term memory
a permanent store where limitless amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time
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capacity
the amount of information that can be held in memory at any time
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duration
the length of time that memories can be held
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encoding
the way in which information is represented in the memory store
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displacement
items in the STM are pushed out before being transferred to LTM to make room for incoming items
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interference
information stored in LTM is confused with similar information
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free recall
participants recall items from a list in any order
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serial recall
participants recall items in the order of their presentation
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digit-span technique
measures capacity of STM. Participants recall the serial order of digits from a presentation. The number of digits is increased until participants can no longer recall them correctly
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proactive interference
Things that have already been learned make it harder to learn new things
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pseudo word
a combination of letters that sound as though it could be an English word, but actually doesn't exist
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modality
a particular form of sensory experience
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Iconic input
visual
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Haptic input
touch
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Echoic input
sound
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Whole report technique
How many you remember
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Partial report technique
a cue for recall i.e. musical note for each item
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Central Executive
decisions delegate
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Phonological loop
holds verbal information.'inner voice'.
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Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
hold visual/spatial information. 'inner eye'
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Articulatory Loop
rehearsal system
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Phonological Store
Passive storage in the phonological loop
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Visual cache
passive storage
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inner scribe
rehearsal mechanism for v-s sketchpad
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Leading question
a question that suggests to the witness, a desired answer
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post-event information
Information given to the witness after the event
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Schema
reconstructive memory
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Factors affects Eye Witness Testimony
Anxiety, Age of witness, Consequentiality, Individual differences
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Context Reinstatement
mentally reinstate the context of target event
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Report Everything
Report every detail, even if it seems trivial
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Recall from changed perspective
Try to describe the event as it would've been seen from a different viewpoint
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Recall in reverse order
Report the event in several different temporal orders, moving backwards and forwards in time
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Corroborating Evidence
when alibis support each other
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Peg-word system
form a mental image of a word and 'hang' it on a peg
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Method of loci
when memory pegs are places
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Dual coding hypothesis
concrete words are encoded twice, once as verbal, once as visual
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Encoding specificity principle
better recall if the retrieval context is like the encoding context
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Card 2

Front

a temporary store where small amounts of information can be kept for brief periods of time.

Back

Short-term memory

Card 3

Front

a permanent store where limitless amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the amount of information that can be held in memory at any time

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the length of time that memories can be held

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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