Cognitive approach

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Loftus and Palmer, Focus?
False memories
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Background?
Memory - sensory, short term, long term. Eye-witness testimony easily influenced.
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Aim?
To investigate the effects of language on memory.
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Research method?
Lab experiment
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Experimental design?
Independent groups design
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Experiment 1 - Sample?
45 students, 5 groups
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IV?
Verb used in critical Q "about how fast were the cars going when they ... each other?"
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DV?
Speed estimate
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Conditions?
Contacted, Bumped, Hit, Collided, Smashed
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Conclusion?
Intensity of verb in critical Q influences speed estimate
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Experiment 2 - Sample?
150 students, 3 groups of 50.
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IV?
Verb used in critical Q
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DV?
Speed estimate & whether broken glass recorded.
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Conditions?
Smashed, Hit, Control
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Conclusions?
Word use affects estimation of speed & pp's thinking of seeing broken glass.
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Ethics upheld?
Confidentiality, consent, debrief, withdraw
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Broken?
Deception (not told true aim was impact of language), Harm (stressful if been in crash), Consent
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High EV?
Q about an event are like real life.
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Low EV?
Clip of staged crash.
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x2 problems?
Low EV, Limited sample in exp.1
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Savage Rumbaugh - focus?
language acquisition
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Aim?
To report on language acquisition of Kanzi and his younger sister Mulika.
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Research method?
Longitudinal case study
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Sample?
Pygmy chimps - Kanzi assigned at 6 months, Mulika. Common chimps - Sherman & Austin
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High EV?
55 acre forest similar to own environment
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Low EV?
Interacting with humans
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x2 problems?
small sample, bias recording data outside.
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Baron Cohen - focus?
Theory of Mind and Autism
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Research method?
Quasi
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Background?
Autistics struggle to read emotion in others. Test for autism - Sally Anne task, Happe's strange stories task.
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Aim?
To test whether adults with autism or asperger's would be impaired on a test of ToM.
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Group 1 sample?
16 HFA (13 m, 3f) 18-49yrs. Volunteers of adverts in magazines & clinical sources, normal IQ.
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Group 2 sample?
50 normal adults 18-48yrs (25m, 25f) Random selection from Cambridge population.
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Group 3 sample?
10 adult patients with Tourette's syndrome, 18-47 yrs, (8m, 2f) from London referal clinic, normal IQ.
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IV?
condition of pp
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DV?
ToM ability
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x4 tasks?
Eyes task, Strange stories task, Control tasks - Gender recognition & Basic emotion recognition task
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Conclusion?
Autistics do lack ToM, struggle to attribute mental states to others.
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Upheld ethics?
Consent, Deception, withdraw, debrief, harm, confidentiality.
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Broken?
Harm (stressful changes)
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High EV?
Photo's of real people & emotions
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Low EV?
Only see B&W eye region, static
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x2 problems?
small sample, low EV
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Section C - main assumption?
Internal mental processes such as memory, thinking, reasoning, problem-solving & language are important features influencing human behaviour.
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Implication?
To study mental processes we have to use indirect methods of data collection such as self-report.
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Similarity?
LP & BC have low EV
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Difference?
LP larger sample size than SR.
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Strengths of approach
It has provided insight of how specific cognitive deficits influence behaviour. The research in this area can have practical applications, such as when interviewing witnesses.
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Weakness of approach?
Research can be reductionist as focuses too narrowly on mental processes and ignores individual, social and biological influences on behaviour.
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2nd weakness of approach?
Since cognitive mental processes are within the mind which we cannot make direct contact with, researchers have to rely on indirect data collection methods e.g. self-report which could be less valid.
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Card 2

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Background?

Back

Memory - sensory, short term, long term. Eye-witness testimony easily influenced.

Card 3

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Aim?

Back

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Card 4

Front

Research method?

Back

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Card 5

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Experimental design?

Back

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