Cognitive Approach

HideShow resource information
What is the first assumption of the Cognitive Approach?
1) Behaviour is shaped my internal processes of the mind. 2) In our mind we manipulate info based on our schemas (definition). 3) Eg. in Bartlett's 'War of the Ghosts' study pps nomalised and rationalised stories to fit in with their existing schema.
1 of 17
What is the second assumption of the Cognitive Approach?
1)We take in info from environ & process it to make sense of the world.2)Like a computer brain can multi-task- use mental processes such as attention, perception, memory,lang, think at the same time.3)Eg.stroop test- in=col&words percp,mem,lang-out
2 of 17
What is the aim of the Attribution Theory?
It tries to analyse the cognitive processes involved in making judgements about why people behave as they do.
3 of 17
What did Heider believe (AT)?
1950 (after his study of perception with Simmel) he explained that people try to ATTRIBUTE causes for behaviours.He found the tendency to describe attributes was so strong that pps humanised basic moving shapes and gave reason for their 'behaviours'.
4 of 17
What are the two sources that attributes for behaviour come from?
1) The person/ internal attributes- such as personality eg. someone's loud cause the are extroverted. 2) The situation/external attributes-such as social norms or luck eg. loud because in noisy environment.
5 of 17
What did Kelley's covariation model state?
The type of attribute used is based on 3 axes; consistency, distinctiveness, consensus. When behaviour is highly consistent, but lacks distinctiveness and consensus internal attributes used. If consistency is low, or all 3 are high, external at. used
6 of 17
When looking at others behaviour observer bias can occur when thinking is distorted. What is observer bias?
This includes FAE where we place emphasis on dispositional attributes rather than situational, leading to judgement errors. Eg.If there is a car crash you might assume they're an 'idiot' (internal) when they were rushing to hospital (external).
7 of 17
When analysing our own behaviour, self-serving bias can occur. What is this?
We tend to take credit for our successes and disassociate ourselves from failures (using ex atrib) This protects our self-esteem & gives us control. Eg.Exam results- if good it was cause they worked hard, if bad it's because of the teacher.
8 of 17
What is the main assumption of the cognitive approach (in CBT)?
Nor behav is shaped by rational internal processing, based on schemas, and that ab behav is due to irrational processing in the middle box of the computer. Directly applied to CBT which aims to make ab behav nor by changing neg thinkin to pos. eg cup
9 of 17
What is the first step in CBT?
The client explains what they are finding difficult, worries about self/world etc. The therapist challenges any negative/distorted thinking eg. client is trained to see the cup as half full not half empty.
10 of 17
What is the second step in CBT?
The therapist will also challenge the clients negative-self schema. Eg. Beck suggested depressed people have a nedative triad (pessimistic view of themselves, future and inability to cope with the world).
11 of 17
What is the third step in CBT?
The therapist will set homework to aid this process. Eg. the client may keep a dysfunctional thought diary. This would involve recording any unpleasent emotions occurring before the negative thoughts then writing a rational response to challenge them
12 of 17
What is the final step in CBT?
The therapist will teach relaxation technigues to help the client through anxious periods (therapy during therapy).
13 of 17
How many sessions are needed during CBT?
16 to 20
14 of 17
When is CBT most successful?
When it is used in conjunction with drugs such as anti-depressants.
15 of 17
What is the success rate of CBT and who suggested it?
David and Avellino (2003) suggests that CBT has the highest overall success rate of all therapies (90%).
16 of 17
What is the conclusion for CBT?
By achieving the aims of CBT (to challenge and alter irrational thinking) we can start to understand how the processing box of the 'computer' works (a core assumption of this approach) and hence better understand human cognition.
17 of 17

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the second assumption of the Cognitive Approach?

Back

1)We take in info from environ & process it to make sense of the world.2)Like a computer brain can multi-task- use mental processes such as attention, perception, memory,lang, think at the same time.3)Eg.stroop test- in=col&words percp,mem,lang-out

Card 3

Front

What is the aim of the Attribution Theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Heider believe (AT)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the two sources that attributes for behaviour come from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Cognitive Psychology resources »