Cognitive

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Memory
Concerns the organisation of time and the way we record it.
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Why is it important?
Communication, problem-solving, basic perception, social world.
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Clive Wearing
Had 30second memory.
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Patient H.M (Brenda Miller, 1966)
Eplieptic seizures, removal of part of hippocampus, can remember events before but not form new ones - dissociation between two types of memory stores.
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Multi-Store Model of Memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)
SM --> STM --> LTM
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Sensory Store
Iconic memory (500ms) and Echoic memory (2-4s)
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STM
Duration (0-18s) and Capacity (7 +/-2 chunks).
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Chunking
Organising items into familiar manageable units.
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SM --> STM
Needs to be paid attention to.
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STM --> LTM
Need to be rehearsed.
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LTM
Permanent record and infinite capacity.
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Strengths :)
Conceptual distinction between 3 kinds of stores makes sense, where they differ in; duration, capacity, forgetting mechanisms.
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Strengths :)
Evidence of STM/LTM being different stores and transfer between them through rehearsal; serial position effect.
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Serial Position Effect
Order in the list you see, affects how likely the word is to be recalled.
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Primacy Effect
First few words more likely to be remembered than middle words.
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Recency Effect
Last few words more likley to be remembered than middle words.
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Weaknesses :(
Oversimplified as it assumes a single STM/LTM and they operate in uniform fashion.
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Weaknesses :(
Assumes that verbal/visual info is processed and stored in the same way.
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Weaknesses :(
The one-way linear direction is not a correct representation; 2-way flow of info between STM/LTM (Morris et al, 1985).
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Weaknesses :(
Neurological Evidence: Warringon & Shallice (1972, 74) - Patient KF as STM impaired and couldn't recall sounds.
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Working Memory (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974)
Central Executive (Attention) --> Phonological Loop (inner voice: speech based info) --> Episodic Buffer (holds/integrates diverse info) --> Visuo-spatial sketchpad (inner eye: visual/spatial info)
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VSSP
E.G. see what the fire engine looks like.
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P.L
E.G. hear the fire engine siren.
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EB
E.G. Integrates info from separate stores & links it to semantic memory (LTM)
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WM
All components have limited capacity systems and are relevatively independent.
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Two assumptions
If 2 tasks use same component, they can't be performed successfully together/if 2 tasks use different components, both tasks should be performed as well together as separately.
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Evidence:
Dual-task studies (Robbins et al, 1996) --> pps had to play chess while performing another tasks.
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Robbins et al (1996)
Repetitive tapping (control)/Random number generation (CE)/Pressing key on keypad in clockwise (VSSP)/Rapid repetition of word see-saw (PL).
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Strengths :)
Both active processing/transient storeage of info --> complex cognitive tasks - language comprehension and reasoning.
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Strengths :)
Explains partial deficits of STM in brain damaged patients - brain damage might affect only one of components of WM.
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Strengths :)
Rehearsal is optional process within phonological loop - more realistic.
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Weaknesses :(
Difficult to identify number & nature of main executive processes associated with the CE (Miyake et al, 2000/Stuss & Alexander, 2007).
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Weaknesses :(
More research is needed on relationship between the episodic buffer and the other components.
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Processes of Memory
Craik & Lockhart (1972)
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Encoding
Processing of info into memory system.
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Storage
Retaining the encoded info in memory over time.
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Retrieval
Process of getting info out of memory.
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Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon
Retrieval process that doesn't produce complete response but produces parts that are constructed into a whole.
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TotTP (Glass & Holyoak, 1986).
It shows how forgetting can be result of retrieval failure, rather than encoding or storage failure.
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Craik & Lockhart (1972) LoP
Info in STM processed at different levels.
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C&L
Attentional/Perceptual processes at the time of learning determine what info will be stored in LTM.
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C&L
Maintenance rehearsal doesn't enhance LTM.
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Shallow
Structural
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Intermediate
Phonemic
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Deep
Semantic.
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LTM
Infinite capcity.
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LTM
General knowledge, personal info, events, acquired skills, motor actions, vocab, languages, grammar.
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LTM
Recall tests/recognition tests.
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Recall Tests
When we are requested to produce an item/retrieve from LTM.
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Free recall tests
Experimenter asks pp to recall as much as possible.
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Cued-recall tests
Experimenter provides clues/hints about material to be remembered.
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Recognition Tests
Shown item and asked if it seems familiar or not.
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Recognition tests
E gives pp choice between correct/incorrect answers (e.g. MCQ).
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Recognition Tests
Verbal (MCQ) + Visual (police lineup) info can be used.
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Implicity (Non-declarative)
Procedual memory - know how memory, automatic (e.g. riding a bike).
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Implicit
Knowing of previously learned info in absence of conscious recollection - implicit memory tests (indirect tests of learning).
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Evidence
Patients with amnesia (e.g. pin-***** experiment - Claparede, 1911).
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Explicit (Declarative)
Know-that memory - conscious recall (e.g. David Cameron is PM).
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Explicit
Conscious/voluntary recollection of memory - direct memory tasks (recall/recognition).
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Evidence
Patients with amensia (e.g. imparied declarative (Episodic/Semantic) memory).
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The Forgetting Curve (Ebbinghaus, 1885,1913)
More than 50% is lost within first hour.
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Encoding Failure
Unsuccessful encoding due to inattention, insufficient rehearsal, shallow processing.
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Encoding Failure
Violent situations - e.g. weapons effect (Loftus et al, 1987).
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Decay Theory
Memories fade away with passage of time regardless of other input.
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Decay Theory
Thorndike (1911) --> law of disuse - memories that aren't used lose strength over time automatically.
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Decay Theory...
Bower (1967) --> memory traces disintergrate/fragment over time.
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DT
Difficult to test - impossible to prevent pps from doing/thinking of anything in intervals.
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Interference Theory
Our ability to remember what we are currently learning can be disrupted by previous/future learning.
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Retroactive (Forgetting) Interference
Forget something old due to interference from new learning (e.g. learning vocab of new language.)
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Proactive Interference
Can't learn something new due to interference from previous learning (e.g. diffuctly counting foreign currency when travelling aboard).
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Cue-Dependent Forgetting (Tulving, 1979)
Forgetting occurs when right cue isn't available for retrieving the memory.
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Encoding Specificity Principle (Tulving, 1979)
The greater the similarity between the encoding event and retrieval event, the greater the likelihood of recalling the orginal memory.
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Context cue
Surrounding environment (e.g. vising old school)
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State cue
Physical/Emotional personal state (e.g. fear).
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Repression
Involves the motivated forgetting of painful/unpleasant memories.
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False Repressed Memories
Authenticity of repressed child abuse memories is challenged by empirical studies that show that it's not all hard to create false memories and they are product of suggestion.
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Roediger & McDermott (2000)
Pps remember non-presented but related words on later recognition/recall test
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Retrieval Inhibition
Adaptive mechanisms of memory --> have to forget other info.
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RI
Retrieval of info caused forgetting of other unwanted related info.
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Retrieval-Induced Forgetting
Retrieval Practice Paradigm (Anderson, Bjork & Bjork, 1994)
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Amnesia
Pathological impairment of memory
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Causes of Amnesia: Organic
Physical brain damage - brain infections, strokes.
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Causes of Amnesia: Psychogenic
Psychological factors - (reversible) trauma, repressed memories.
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Alzheimer's Disease
Degenerative brain disorder.
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Korsakoff Syndrome
Brain disease resulting from chronic alcoholism.
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Whitty & Zangwill (1976)
Pub manager unable to learn new material presented to him/confabulation (filling in gaps).
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Retrograde Amnsia (No retrieval)
Can't remember events that occur prior to onset
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Antergrade Amnsia (No learning)
Can't later remember events that occur after onset.
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Medial Temporal Lobe
Vital for explicit memory - hippocampus is the formation of memory.
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Problem
When current situation differs from desired goal
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Problem-solving
Searching for means to reduce the differences between goal state and current state.
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3 Major Aspects to Problem-solving
Purposeful, Involves controlled processes and itsnt reliant on automatic processes, Only exists when there is lack of relevant knowledge to produce immediate solution.
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Well-defined problems
Clearly defined aspects of problem - initial state, range of possible moves, obstacles, goal state (e.g. maze)
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Ill-defined problems
Underspecified aspects of problem (e.g. everyday problems such as choosing career.)
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Knowledge-rich problems
Problems that can only be solved through use of considerable amounts of prior knowledge - used to examine expertise,
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Knowledge-lean problems
Problems that can be solved without use of much prior knowledge, with most of necessary info being provided by problem - used to examine problem-solving approaches.
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Trial and Error
Thorndike (1898) - cats --> behaviour has consequences.
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Insight
The experience of suddenly realising how to solve problem (e.g. 9 dot)
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Functional Fixedness
Tendency to think of things only in terms of useful functions (e.g. pin and matchbox)
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Mental Set (Einstellung) - Luchins (1942)
Tendency to use familiar strategy even where there is simpler alternative or problem can't be solved.
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General Problem Solver - Newell & Simon (1972)
Assumptions: Info processing is serial, People possess limited STM, They can retreive info from LTM.
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Problem Space
The set of all states that can be achieved during course of solving a problem.
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Newell & Simon (1972) - Heuristics
Rules of thumb that are cognitively undemanding and often produce approx accurate answers.
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Means-end Analysis
Reduce the difference ebtween inital and goal states by reaching sub goals.
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Hill Climbing
Choosing the next step that apparently takes you closest to goal state.
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Progress Monitoring
If you don't progress quickly enough towards goals, adopt a different strategy.
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Working Backwards
Start at goal state and work backwards via means-end analysis.
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Representation of Problem
Finding the right representation fo probelm can be crucial for finding solution.
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Positive Transfer
Past experience of solving one problem makes it easier to solve a similar current problem.
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Negative Transfer
Past experience in solving one problem disrupts the ability to solve similar current problem (mental set).
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Near Transfer
Beneficial effects of previous problem solving on current solving (in similar context).
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Chen & Klahr (2008): 3 Dimensions
Task similarity (superficial/structural features), Context similarity (physical/social contex), Time interval (period of time between past/present problem).
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Transfer
Transfer is greatest when 2 problems are similar, contexts are similar and time interval is short.
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Far Transfer
Beneficial effects of previous problem solving on current solving (in dissimilar context).
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Chen et al (2004)
Statue problem
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Expertise (Uses knowledge-rich problems)
Highly skilled competent performance in 1+ task domains
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Skill acquisition
Developing abilities through practice so as to increase probability of goal achievement.
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Chess Expertise - Chase & Simon (1973)
Expert chess players have detailed knowledge about chess positions stored in LTM, which allows them to relate position in current game to previous.
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Chess Expertise - De Groot (1965)
Pps were chess masters/beginners - pieces randomly displayed or in middle and had to recall as many --> Ms did better in real positions.
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Chunking Theory - Chase & Simon (1973)
Chunk = a stored unit formed from integrating smaller pieces of info (e.g. chess experts have very large numbers of chess chunks in LTM).
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Deliberate Practice - Ericsson et al (1993): 4 aspects
Task is appropriate level of difficulty, learner given performance feedback, learner has adequate chances to repeat, learner has opportunity to correct.
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Deliberate Practice - Ericsson & Kinstch (1995)
Experts learn how to store relevant info in LTM so that it can be readily accessed through retreival cues in WM. (more efficient at combining resources of LTM/WM)
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Attention
Selection/prioritisation of info processed, limited in capacity, can be intentional/captured (unintentional).
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Why do we need it?
To function effectively.
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Schneider & Deubel (2002) - Functions of selective attention
Selection for perceptions --> detecting/selecting what to process (e.g. selecting letter)/Selection for action --> detecting/selecting which response or action to make (e.g. press correct location).
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Dorsal
Location, speed of movement.
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Ventral
Features, such as colour/shape.
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Binding Problem
Bringing together WHAT an object is, with WHERE and HOW to act on it.
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Top Down (Controlled Attention - effortful)
Goal driven, active procress (controlled), info driven from interval sources such as experience/knowledge).
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Bottom Up (Automatic Attention - faster)
Stimulus driven, passive process (automatic), info driven from external sources such as environmental.
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Stroop Effect
Selective attention task to test relationship between controlled/automatic attentional processing (e.g. colour words).
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Automatic Attention - Advantages :)
Reduce demands of cognitive resources, enables divided attention - multi-tasking (in contrast to focused selective attention).
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Automatic Attention - Disadvantages :(
Not flexible, can continue when not appropriate (e.g. stroop effect).
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Automatic Attention: real world - Help
once you learn how to change gears, you can concentrate on other things.
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Automatic Attention: real world - Hinder
If you change to automatic car, might try to change gears when concentrating on something else.
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Dichotic Listening Task - Cherry (1953)
2 different messages in each ear, instructed to repear one (shadowing).
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Filter Model - Broadbent (1958)
Filter occurs early in processing, info selected based on physical characteristics, other info filtered out --> explains why people recall next to nothing in unattended ear, but why can people detect their name?
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Attentuation Model - Treisman (1964)
Suggested the location of bottle neck/filter is more flexible, both relevant/irrelevant info is processed, if capacity limits are reached then irrelevant info is turned down (attenuated) but still processed --> explains own name effect.
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Deutsch & Deutsch (1963)
Place bottle neck at late stage, all stimuli fully analysed and only relevant onces affect outputs --> doesn't explain why people attend next to nothing from unattended ear.
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Coch, Sanders & Neveille (2005)
Attend message in one ear but press button when hear target word in either --> ERP response greater when targer was presented in attended.
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Spatial attention
Deployment of attention across space.
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Spatial attention
Essential for visual search.
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Overt attention
Attention follows eye movements.
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Saccades
Rapid movements of eyes from one place to another.
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Fixations
Short pauses on points of interest (using eye-tracker.
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Covert Attention
Attend to info without moving eyes.
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Spotlight of attention
Allows us to attend to particular region of illuminated environment.
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Posner (1980)
Examined effect of visually pre-cueing regions of space on detecting presence of potential target.
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Posner (1980)
Valid cues produced faster responsed and invlaid cues procuded slower responses.
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Posner & Peterson (1990): 3 components of controlling attention
Disengage, shift, engage.
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Modality
The processing system specific to one sense.
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Cross-Modal
Simultaneously combining input from different sensory inputs.
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Spence & Read (1996)
Auditoty cues and visual targets - still get cueing effects.
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Ho & Spence (2005)
Drivers reacted quicker to critical driving event seen via rear mirror and auditory cues for critical evenets in front were not as effective.
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Ventriloquist Effect
When controlled attention is oriented to spacial location, selection of both modalities is enchanced (e.g. cinema).
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Cocktail Party Effect
Hearing own name when not attending to a conversation.
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Base-rate Fallacy info - Koehler (1996)
The relative frequency with which an event occurs or an attribute is present in pop.
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Taxi-cab hit and run: Kahneman & Tversky (1972)
Pps focused on only evidence of witness and ignored base rate info. Maintained the 80% likelihood that cab was blue.
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Kahneman & Tversky (1973)
Rely on simple heuristics to make judgements - they are cognitively undemanding and are very rapid processes but still prone to errors.
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Representativeness heuristic
The assumption that representative or typical members of a category are encountered more frequently.
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Conjunction fallacy
Probability of 2 events occuring together is always less than/equal to probability of either one occurring alone.
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Availability heuristic
Assumption that the frequencies of events can be estimated accurately by the accessibility in memory.
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Lichtenstein et al (1978)
Disease causes 16x more death than accidents, suicides 2x as frequent as homicides.
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Hertwig et al (2005) :)
Availability-by-recall mechanism --> number of instances that individual can recall / Fluency mechanism --> how easy it is to bring relevant instances to mind without retreiving them.
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Oppenheimer (2004) :(
People not only spontaneously recognise when familiarity of stimuli comes from sources other than frequency, but also overcorrect.
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Anchoring & Adjustment heuristic
People start with implicity suggested reference point and make adjustments to it based on additional info to reach an estimate.
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Kahneman & Tversky (1973) - Roulette wheel
Ps whose wheel stopped on 10 guessed lower values (25%) than pps whose wheel stopped on 65 (45%)
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Dan Ariely (2006)
Pps with higher digits submitted bids that were much higher (60-100%) than the lower social security number ending digits (anchor).
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Planning Fallacy
Predictions regarding time needed to complete a future task disply an optimistic bias where time needed is underestimated.
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Planning fallcy
Occurs regardless of knowledge and only affects predictions about own tasks.
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Buehler et al (1994)
Only 30% of psy students completed theses in time predicted.
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Strengths :)
Showed that people are prone to systematical biases in judgements
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Strengths :)
True irrespective of intelligence level/cog ability (Stanovich & West, 2008).
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Limitations :(
Definition of heuristics differ (Shan & Oppenheimer, 2008)
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Limitations :(
Errors may be due to misunderstanding of probelm (Sides, Oppenheimer, Bonini & Viale, 2002)
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Limitations :(
Unfair emphasis on biases/errors in judgement (Hertwif et al, 2005).
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Limitations :(
Many make accurate judgements (Dual process model)
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Limitations :(
Much of research is artifical and detached from everyday life.
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Fast & Frugal heuristics - Gigerenzer et al (2007)
We possess an adaptive toolbox (e.g. take the best choice).
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F&F Heuristics: 3 components
Search rule (searches for cues in order fo validity), stopping rule (stop after finding discriminatory cue), decision rule (choose outcome).
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Recognition heuristic
If one of 2 objects is recognised and other isn't, iner that recognised object has higher value with respect to criterion.
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Why?
Evolutionary perspective, produce accurate predictions, no judgement process would take less time/less cognitively demanding.
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Dual Process Model - Kahneman (2003)
System 1 = intuitive, automatic, immediate / System 2 = analytical, controlled, rule-governed.
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Dual Process Model
S1 rapidly generates intuitive answers, which are then monitored or evaluated by S2
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Judgement
Using cues to draw inferences about situations/events --> evaluate in terms of accuracy.
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Decision Making
Choosing among various options --> evaluated in terms of consequences of the decisions
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Problem solving
Generate own options --> focus on factors that influence preferences
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Decision Making
Options are present --> focus on factors that influence choice of strategies.
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Bet choices - Tversky & Shafir (1992) / Kahneman & Tversky (1984)
All cases, most pps didnt make what appears to be best choice, most preferred the choice with smaller expected gain and choice with larger expected loss.
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Prospect Theory - Kahneman & Tversky (1979)
Individuals identify reference point generally representing their current state. / Individuals are more sensitive to loss aversion.
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Loss Aversion
More sensitive to potential losses than to potential gains.
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Omission bias/Decision Avoidance - Ritov & Baron (1990)
Pps had choice to either not let child have vaccination (die or vaccination has fatal effect). Tolereance level of decision - 5 deaths per 10,000.
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Omission bias
Tendency to prefer inaction to action when engaged in risky behaviour.
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Anticipated regret
Greater when an unwanted outcome has been caused by an individual's own actions.
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Complex decision Making - Simon (1957): Unbounded rationality
Assumes that all relevant info is available & for use by decision makers --> Engage in optimisation.
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Optimisation
The selection of the best choice in decision making.
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CDM - Simon: Problems
No way to decide if decision is optimal (time pressure, uncertainity) / Typically people fail to select optimal choice on regular basis.
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CDM: Bounded rationality
People are as rational as their processing limitations permit (info costs, limited attention) --> Engage in satisficing.
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Satisficing (satisfactory + sufficing)
The selection of the first choice meeing certain minimum requirements.
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CDM - Schwartz et al (2002)
Satisficers (content with making reasonably good decisions) were happier/experiences less regret as compared to maximisers (perfectionists).
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Card 2

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Communication, problem-solving, basic perception, social world.

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Why is it important?

Card 3

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Had 30second memory.

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Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

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Eplieptic seizures, removal of part of hippocampus, can remember events before but not form new ones - dissociation between two types of memory stores.

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Card 5

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SM --> STM --> LTM

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