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What is the duration of the STM measured by?
Seconds and Minutes.
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Who did the Key Study into the duration of the STM?
Peterson and Peterson
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What did Peterson and Peterson do?
the gave 24 students a consonant syllable and a 3 digit-number and asked to count backwards and recall.
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What did Peterson and Peterson find?
participants could remember: 90% after 3seconds, 20% after 9seconds and 2% after 18 seconds.
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Why could Peterson and Peterson's study be classed as not Valid?
Ecological: the stimulus material is artificial and therefore cannot be generalised. Internal: they can be seen to be testing displacement over duration.
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What did Marsh et al. do in relation to the STM duration?
He suggested that recall was high because they knew they were going to be tested. He also conducted the experiment without caution of recall and found that forgetting happened after 2 seconds.
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What research did Shepard conduct into the duration of the LTM?
showed participants 612 memorable pictures. after an hour they showed almost perfect recognition. 4months later: 50% recognition.
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Who conducted research into the duration of the LTM?
Bahrick et al. and Shepard.
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How is the duration of the LTM measured?
hours, days, weeks, months and years.
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What research did Bahrick et al. conduct into the duration of the LTM?
Asked participants to put names to faces from their high school year books after 48 years. They were 70% accurate.
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Why is Bahrick et al's. study into the LTM more valid than Shepard?
Bahrick et al's stimulus is more meaningful and therefore more likely to be remembered. Bahrick et al's research has more generalisability.
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Who conducted research into the capacity of the STM?
Miller and Jacobs
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who conducted research into the capacity of the STM with regaurds to chunking?
Miller and Simon.
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What research did Miller conclude about the capacity of the STM?
he reviewed previous research and concluded than the span of the STM is 7+/-2
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What did Jacob do in order to test the capacity of the STM?
he used the digit span techniqu. He found the average span of digits was 9.3 but for letters it was 7.3.
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In Jacobs study, why was the average of rememberance for digits higher than letters?
Because there are only 10 possible digits whereas there as 26 letters.
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What did Miller conclude in relation to the Capacity of the STM?
He found that people can recall 5 words as well as they can recall 5 letters.
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What did Simon find in relation to the Capacity of the STM?
he found that the size of the chunk matters. people had a shorter span for longer chunks and vice versa
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What did Jacobs find in relation to the capacity of the STM and individual differences?
He found that 8-year-olds could remember an average of 6.6 digits whereas for 19-year-olds was 8.6 digits.
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What was Jacobs explanation of the change over age of the capacity of the STM?
He said tis may be down to a gradual increase in brain capacity of that people develop strategies to improve.
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Who conducted the KEY STUDY into the encoding of the STM and LTM?
Baddeley (1966)
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What did Baddeley do in relation to the encoding of the STM and LTM?
participants were given a list of words that were acoustically simmilar/dissimilar and words that were semantically similar/dissimilar.
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What did Baddeley find in his research into the capacity of tyhe STM and LTM?
Participants had more difficulty remmebering acoustically similar words in the STM but not the LTM. Semantically simmilar words caused little problem in the STM recall but led to muddled LTM memories.
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What did Wickens find in relation to the encoding of the STM and LTM?
He found that the STM sometimes uses semantic code rather than being restricted to acoustic coding.
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What did Brandimote et al. find in their lab experiment into the encoding of the STM and LTM?
found that participants used visual encoding in the STM if they were given a visual task and were prevented from verbal rehersal.
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What are the 3 stored in the multi-store model?
Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory.
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What is the job of the sensory memory in the MSM?
retainment for a brief period by the sensory registers.
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What is the first step regarding the MSM?
information first arrives at the sensory memory. attention causes transference to the STM
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what is the second step regarding the MSM?
Information in the STM is in a fragile state, and disappears if not rehersed (decay) or if new info enters (displacement)
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what does increasing rehersal do in the MSM?
leads to the transfer from STM to LTM; the more rehersal of an item the better it is remembered?
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What is rehersal te same as in the MSM?
maintenance rehersal and elaborative rehersal.
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What did Sperling do in relation to the Sensory memory?
asked participants to report 12letters/digits from a three line display after a 50 millisecond delay.
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What were Sperlings results in relation to his study into the sensory memory?
He found that recall was poorer for all items than when asked to give one row only. this shows that information decays rapidly in the sensory memory.
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What did did Glanzer and Cunits find about serial position effect?
gave participants a list of words and found that words recalled tended to be from the start of the list (primary effect) and from the end (recency effect) of the list.
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Why does serial position occur?
Because the first words in the list are best reheresed and transferred into the LTM and the last words are in the STM when you start recalling.
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Who was behind the idea of the working memory model?
Baddeley and Hitch
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What are the 4 stores in the working model memory model?
Central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketch pad and the episodic buffer.
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What is the function of the Central executive?
is an attentional process to monitor incoming data and allocate tasks. also monitors and cooridinates all other mental functions in the WMM
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What is the function of the Phonological loop?
deals with all auditory information and preserves its order. recives info, temoprarily stores it and keeps it order. also encodes all speech sounds
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What is the Phonological loop divided into?
Phonological store: which store the words you hear. Articulaory:which allows maintenance rehersal.
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What is the main function of the Visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Stores visual and spatial information. Encodes visual information.
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What is the Visuo-spatial sketchpad divided into?
Visual cache which stores visual data. Inner scribe which encodes the arrangement of objects in the visual field.
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What is the function of the Episodic Buffer?
provide a temporary store and links with the LTM. Recieves input from many sources and temporarily stores this information.
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What did Baddeley find in relation to the Phonological loop?
he demonstrated that the phonological loop holds the amount of information that can be said in 2 seconds.
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What did Baddeley find in relation the the Visuo-spatial sketchpad?
showed that participants had more difficulty doing two visual tasks than a visual and verbal task.
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What did Bunge find in relation to the central executive?
used the FMRI to demonstrate greater activation in certain parts of the brain when participantsengaged in dual-task activity rather than single task.
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What the strength of the MSM?
the MSM produces testable predictions, which is important for the scientific process to enable theory testing and verification.
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What are the strengths of the WMM?
It can explain a number of research findings that the MSM can't. The WMM expands on the MSM.
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What are the limitations of the WMM?
The central executive is vaguely defined and doesn't really explain anything.
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Who conducted research into the effect of misleading information on EWT?
Loftus and Palmer.
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What did experiment one of Loftus and Palmers study consist of?
45 students were shown films of traffic accidents. Questions afterwards included one about sppeed including either 'hit' 'smashed 'collided' etc
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What did experiment one of Loftus andPalmers study find?
The group who heard the verb 'smashed' estimated a high speed. The group that heard the word 'contacted' estimated the lowest speed.
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What did experiment one of Loftus and palmers study suggest about the effect of misleading information?
That leading questions can have a significant effect on memory.
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What did experiment two of Loftus and Palmers study consist of?
A set of participants were shown a film of an accident, and a week later we're asked if there was any broken glass
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What did experiment two of Loftus and Palmers study find?
Those who heard the question with 'smashed' we're more likely to recollect broken glass, when there wasn't any.
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What did experiment two of Loftus and Palmers study suggest about misleading information?
Event information affects initial storage.
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what did Loftus do in her suppoting study of the effects of misleading info on EWT?
participants were shown photos of a car at a junction with a STOP or YEILD sign. then given questions that were either consistent or inconsistent. and then asked to indentify the orignial picture they were shown.
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What were the results of Loftus' support study into the effects of misleading info on EWT?
Thoses given given inconsistent information were 41% accurate where as those given consistent information were 75% accurate.
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What did Loftus' study show about the effects of misleading info on EWT?
that misleading information affects recall.
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What did Bekerian and Bowers conclude from their research into misleading info and EWT?
misleading information affects retrieval rather than storage.
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Why could Loftus and Palmers Key study into mileading info and EWT be seen as invalid?
because the experimental setting is not true life. participants may not take the experimental task seriously.
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How can gender effect the misleading info in EWT?
men and women take an interest in different aspects of a scene but both are equally accurate.
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How can age effect the misleading info in EWT?
elderly people are less able to remember the source of the informsation than younger people.
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What is the definition of Anxiety?
a nervous emotional state where we fear that something unpleasant is about to happen
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What did Deffenbacher et al. do in relation to the negative effect of anxiety on EWT?
conducted a meta-analysis. analysed 18 studies of anxiety and EWT.
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What did Deffenbacher et al. find in relation to the negative effects of anxiety on EWT?
many showed that stress has a negative impact on accuracyof EWT.
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What did Christianson and Hubbinette do in relation to axiety and ehancing recall?
conducted a questionnaire. spoke to 58 real witnesses to bank robberies.
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What did Christianson and Hubbinette find in their study into anxiety enhancing recall?
the grater the threat, the more accurate the recall and the more detail was remembered, compared to onlookers who were less emotionally eroused.
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What did Johnson and Scott do in relation to the weapon focus effect and EWT?
conducted a lab experiment. A man runs through a room carrying a pen covered in grease or a knife in blood.
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What did Johnson and Scott find in relation to the weapon focus effect and EWT?
49% accurate in identifying the man with the pen, compared to 33% accuracy with the knife.
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How did Loftus et al. support the evidence of the weapon focus effect?
Loftus et al. tracked eyewitnesses' eye movements showing they were looking at a weapon rather than the potential criminals face.
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What did Parker and Carranza find in relation to children being witnesses?
that primary children were more likely to choose someone from a mock line up than were adults, but they were also more likely to make errors.
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What did Yarmey find in relation to Age differences in accuracy?
that older adults were less confident in recall of a confederate but not less accurate than younger adults.
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What did Memon et al. find in relation of the effects of delay and EWT?
that accuracy in older people dropped when the identification task was delayed for a week.
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What did Clifansi et al. find in relation to the effect of age on EWT and individual difference?
that midly intoxicated participants were less observant that sober participants.
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Why may studies into the effect of age on EWT not be valid?
participants may not behvae as they would in real life.
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What are the 4 steps of the cognitive interview?
report everything, mental reinstatement, changing the order and changing the perspective.
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What research did Kohnken et al. do into the effectiveness of CI?
conducted a meta-analysis of 53 studies and found a 34% increase in correct recall using CI with standard interview.
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How can Time be a problem regarding the CI?
the CI is time consuming and police prefer time limiting methods of of information collecting.
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What did Fisher and Geiselman do regarding the CI?
added further cognitive techniques for perobing witness's mental image of an event.
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What are 4 verbal techniques for memory improvement?
Acronyms, Acrostics, Rhymes and Chunking
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What are 3 visual techniques of memory improvement?
Method of loci, Keyword method and mind maps.
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What did Gruneberg find that 30% of psychology students use to revise?
mnemonies, espeacially acronyms and acrostics.
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What did Glidden find was effective in children with learning disabilities?
Verbal mnemonics although not in the long term.
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What did Bower do in relation to Verbal mnemonis?
a lab experiment that particiapnts 112 words to learn
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What did Bower find in relation to Verbal mnemonics?
recall was 2-3times more accurate if the words were presented an organised heirarchy.
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What did Broadly and MacDonald find in their real world application of verbal mnemonics?
studied 63 children with down syndrome. an experimental group recieved training in memory improvement techniques and showed improvement in stm skills.
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What did Pavio say about visual mnemonics?
that words and images are processed separately. Therefore, concrete words will be remembered better because they are double-encoded- once as a word, and once as a visual image.
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Who did the Key Study into the duration of the STM?

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Peterson and Peterson

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What did Peterson and Peterson do?

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What did Peterson and Peterson find?

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Why could Peterson and Peterson's study be classed as not Valid?

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