Cognitive Section

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  • Created by: Pippa_cn
  • Created on: 26-04-18 14:37
Who proposed the reconstructive memory theory?
Bartlett
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What are Schemas?
Parcels or stored knowledge about specific objects or events
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Tell me the war of the ghost story.
2 men hunting seals, canoeing down a river, approached by a ghost.
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How did Bartlett's participants change the war of the ghosts story?
Fishing, Boat, Ghosts not mentioned
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Give 3 evaluation points about the war of the ghost story.
Culturally unfamiliar, lacked story order, dramatic and supernatural element
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who proposed the multi store model?
Atkinson and Shiffin
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Describe the Multi Store Model
info comes into the sensory memory, if attention is paid to the info it moves to the STM. It is then reversed using the maintenance rehearsal. When it reversed enough it moves to LTM
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explain the sensory memory store (MSM) - encodes, capacity, how long for?
encodes in original form, unlimited capacity and for 1 second
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explain the Long Term memory store (MSM) - encodes, capacity, how long for?
encodes semantically has unlimited capacity
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explain the Short term memory store (MSM) - encodes, capacity, how long for?
encodes acoustically, can hold 5 - 9 info for 30 seconds
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who proposed the Long Term Memory Theory?
Tulving
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how does tooling say the Long Term Memory is split?
Into semantic and episodic memories
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what are the 4 ways that Tulving compared the two Long term Stores
Nature, Spacial Referencing, Time referencing and Retrieval.
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explain the 4 comparisons tulving made for Episodic memories.
Mental Diary, Info stored chronologically, time and context needed and cues needed
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explain the 4 comparisons tulving made for Semantic memories.
Mental encyclopaedia, info can be fragmented and learn independently, no cues needed
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Who proposed the Working Memory Model?
Baddeley and Hitch
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which store does the working memory model focus on?
Short term Memory store
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what are the three stores within the short term memory according to the working memory model?
Central Exceutive, Phological Loop, Visuo Spacial Sketchpad
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Explain the three short term memory stores.
CE - 'the little man' PL- Vebal Info VSS- Visual Information
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what was added to the working memory model after it was critiqued
Eposodic Buffer
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what are the 4 individual differences for the cognitive approach?
Process speeds, Schemas, Episodic and semantic, Gender
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What is the Classic Study for Cognitive Psychology?
Baddeley
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what was the aim of Baddeley's Experiment?
investigate the influence of semantic and acoustic word similarity on the long and short term memory
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what was Baddeley's Procedure?
4 groups spilt into semantic or acoustic similar or dissimilar, each group shown10 words in an order then shown all words together and asked to order them. This was repeated 4 more times then they had interface task + a surprise test
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What were the results of Baddeley's study?
STM - acoustically similar words hardest to recall LTM - semantic words most difficult
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What is the cognitive approach contemporary Study?
Sebastian and Hernadez Gill
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what was the aim of Sebastian and Hernadez gill's Study?
to investigate the development of the phonological loop in children ages 5 - 17 using digit span as a measurement.
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what was the procedure of Sebastian and Hernadez gill's Study?
570 volunteers from madrid schools divided into 5 groups. One digit read aloud at 1 second. Then had to write numbers down. Increased digit each time.
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what was the results of Sebastian and Hernadez gill's Study?
5 year old - 3.76 digits, 15-17 year old - 5.83 digits
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what was the conclusion of Sebastian and Hernadez gill's Study?
digit span increases with age - spainsh language has more syllables
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define what an independant variable is.
variable the researcher changes
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define what a dependant variable is.
variable the researcher measures
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define what an extraneous variable is.
variables that influence the study unintentionally.
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define what an objectivity is.
when data is not bias
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define what an Reliability is.
whether or not the study can be replicated.
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define what Predictive Validity is.
the extent to which results can predict the future
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define what experimenter effects are.
where or not the experimenter's presence influences the study
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define what confounding variables are.
factors the influence your study so much that you are no longer testing what you intended to measure
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give two examples of extraneous Variables
situational and participant
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give the 3 types of hypotheses.
directional, non direction and null.
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give two strengths of a lab experiment.
high reliability and removes risk of extreneous variables
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give 3 weaknesses of lab experiments.
objective, experimenter effects and demand characteristics
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give 3 strengths of a field experiment
ecologically valid, low demand characteristics, low experimenter effects
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give 2 weakness of field experiments.
lack of reliability, extraneous variables
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give the 2 types of stats test in the cognitive approach.
wilcoxon and mann whitney U
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what is the criteria for a wilcoxon stats test.
test of difference, repeated measure, ordinal or interval data
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what is the criteria for a mann whitney u stats test.
test of difference, independent groups, ordinal or interval data
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state the cognitive key question
are eye witness testimonies always accurate?
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describe the cognitive key question
eye witness is someone who watched a crime and gives an account of what they saw, used in criminal courts, unbiased view, courts could take other factors into account
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explain the cognitive key question
RM - schemas fill gaps (knife in film not real life) MSM- Rehearsal and attention (2 fighting, 3rd pulls out gun) WMM- Capacity of STM (listening to music)
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what is the aim of the cognitive practical?
to investigate using lab experiments acoustic similarity on the STM
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what was your null hypothesis for your cognitive practical?
There will be no effect on the STM based on how many acoustically similar words can be recalled
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Card 2

Front

What are Schemas?

Back

Parcels or stored knowledge about specific objects or events

Card 3

Front

Tell me the war of the ghost story.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How did Bartlett's participants change the war of the ghosts story?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give 3 evaluation points about the war of the ghost story.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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